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      PharmMapper server: a web server for potential drug target identification using pharmacophore mapping approach

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          Abstract

          In silico drug target identification, which includes many distinct algorithms for finding disease genes and proteins, is the first step in the drug discovery pipeline. When the 3D structures of the targets are available, the problem of target identification is usually converted to finding the best interaction mode between the potential target candidates and small molecule probes. Pharmacophore, which is the spatial arrangement of features essential for a molecule to interact with a specific target receptor, is an alternative method for achieving this goal apart from molecular docking method. PharmMapper server is a freely accessed web server designed to identify potential target candidates for the given small molecules (drugs, natural products or other newly discovered compounds with unidentified binding targets) using pharmacophore mapping approach. PharmMapper hosts a large, in-house repertoire of pharmacophore database (namely PharmTargetDB) annotated from all the targets information in TargetBank, BindingDB, DrugBank and potential drug target database, including over 7000 receptor-based pharmacophore models (covering over 1500 drug targets information). PharmMapper automatically finds the best mapping poses of the query molecule against all the pharmacophore models in PharmTargetDB and lists the top N best-fitted hits with appropriate target annotations, as well as respective molecule’s aligned poses are presented. Benefited from the highly efficient and robust triangle hashing mapping method, PharmMapper bears high throughput ability and only costs 1 h averagely to screen the whole PharmTargetDB. The protocol was successful in finding the proper targets among the top 300 pharmacophore candidates in the retrospective benchmarking test of tamoxifen. PharmMapper is available at http://59.78.96.61/pharmmapper.

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          Most cited references 35

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          The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt)

          The ability to store and interconnect all available information on proteins is crucial to modern biological research. Accordingly, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) plays an increasingly important role by providing a stable, comprehensive, freely accessible central resource on protein sequences and functional annotation. UniProt is produced by the UniProt Consortium, formed in 2002 by the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), the Protein Information Resource (PIR) and the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB). The core activities include manual curation of protein sequences assisted by computational analysis, sequence archiving, development of a user-friendly UniProt web site and the provision of additional value-added information through cross-references to other databases. UniProt is comprised of three major components, each optimized for different uses: the UniProt Archive, the UniProt Knowledgebase and the UniProt Reference Clusters. An additional component consisting of metagenomic and environmental sequences has recently been added to UniProt to ensure availability of such sequences in a timely fashion. UniProt is updated and distributed on a bi-weekly basis and can be accessed online for searches or download at .
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            PDBsum: a Web-based database of summaries and analyses of all PDB structures.

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              Virtual ligand screening: strategies, perspectives and limitations

               Gerhard Klebe (2006)
              In contrast to high-throughput screening, in virtual ligand screening (VS), compounds are selected using computer programs to predict their binding to a target receptor. A key prerequisite is knowledge about the spatial and energetic criteria responsible for protein–ligand binding. The concepts and prerequisites to perform VS are summarized here, and explanations are sought for the enduring limitations of the technology. Target selection, analysis and preparation are discussed, as well as considerations about the compilation of candidate ligand libraries. The tools and strategies of a VS campaign, and the accuracy of scoring and ranking of the results, are also considered.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                1 July 2010
                29 April 2010
                29 April 2010
                : 38
                : Web Server issue
                : W609-W614
                Affiliations
                1Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 3School of Information Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 and 4Bioinformatics Center, Key Lab of Systems Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel/Fax: +86-21-64250213; Email: hlli@ 123456ecust.edu.cn Correspondence may also be addressed to Hualiang Jiang. Tel/Fax: +86-21-50805873; Email: hljiang@ 123456mail.shcnc.ac.cn
                Article
                gkq300
                10.1093/nar/gkq300
                2896160
                20430828
                © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Genetics

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