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      Congenital Hypothyroidism due to a Low Level of Maternal Thyrotropin Receptor-Blocking Antibodies

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Maternal TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs) can cross the placenta and affect fetal and neonatal thyroid function. Maternal TSH receptor-blocking antibodies (TBAbs) are a rare cause of congenital hypothyroidism. Case Report: Following the discovery of a highly elevated TSH on her neonatal screening test, a 10-day-old girl with no familial history of thyroid disorder was referred to the pediatric endocrinology unit. Hypothyroidism was confirmed with a highly elevated TSH (817 mIU/L, reference range 0.4–3.1) and very low levels of FT4 (1.8 pmol/L, reference range 12–22). Anti-TPO antibodies were at 81 IU/mL (reference range <34), TRAbs at 1.7 IU/L (reference range <1.75), and thyroglobulin at 9.4 µg/L (reference range 3.5–77). The thyroid appeared normal on ultrasonography, and no radioiodine uptake was seen on the scintigraphy after the perchlorate discharge test. Concomitantly, a severe maternal hypothyroidism was discovered (TSH 224 mIU/L). The maternal ultrasound appeared normal, anti-TPO antibodies were moderately elevated, and TRAbs were at 3.2 IU/L. TBAbs activity was measured in the mother and her daughter, and a very high and similar blocking activity was observed in both patients (TBAbs 89%, reference range <10%). L-thyroxine treatment was introduced in the newborn and was successfully discontinued at 6.5 months of age, as the TBAbs activity decreased. Conclusion: We report herein a case of transient congenital hypothyroidism with a normal neonatal TRAbs level. In case of maternal TBAbs, similar activity of maternal TBAbs must be expected in the neonate, independently of the neonatal level of TRAbs.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

          The aim was to update the guidelines for the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum published previously in 2007. A summary of changes between the 2007 and 2012 version is identified in the Supplemental Data (published on The Endocrine Society's Journals Online web site at http://jcem.endojournals.org). This evidence-based guideline was developed according to the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force, grading items level A, B, C, D, or I, on the basis of the strength of evidence and magnitude of net benefit (benefits minus harms) as well as the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The guideline was developed through a series of e-mails, conference calls, and one face-to-face meeting. An initial draft was prepared by the Task Force, with the help of a medical writer, and reviewed and commented on by members of The Endocrine Society, Asia and Oceania Thyroid Association, and the Latin American Thyroid Society. A second draft was reviewed and approved by The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated substantive changes. Practice guidelines are presented for diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyroid-related medical issues just before and during pregnancy and in the postpartum interval. These include evidence-based approaches to assessing the cause of the condition, treating it, and managing hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, gestational hyperthyroidism, thyroid autoimmunity, thyroid tumors, iodine nutrition, postpartum thyroiditis, and screening for thyroid disease. Indications and side effects of therapeutic agents used in treatment are also presented.
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            2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

            Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the guidelines for the management of these disorders by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception, and the postpartum period.
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              European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Consensus Guidelines on Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism

              Objective: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Evidence: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify key articles relating to the screening, diagnosis, and management of CH. The evidence-based guidelines were developed with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, describing both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. Consensus Process: Thirty-two participants drawn from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and five other major scientific societies in the field of pediatric endocrinology were allocated to working groups with assigned topics and specific questions. Each group searched the literature, evaluated the evidence, and developed a draft document. These papers were debated and finalized by each group before presentation to the full assembly for further discussion and agreement. Recommendations: The recommendations include: worldwide neonatal screening, approaches to assess the cause (including genotyping) and the severity of the disorder, the immediate initiation of appropriate L-T4 supplementation and frequent monitoring to ensure dose adjustments to keep thyroid hormone levels in the target ranges, a trial of treatment in patients suspected of transient CH, regular assessments of developmental and neurosensory functions, consulting health professionals as appropriate, and education about CH. The harmonization of diagnosis, management, and routine health surveillance would not only optimize patient outcomes, but should also facilitate epidemiological studies of the disorder. Individuals with CH require monitoring throughout their lives, particularly during early childhood and pregnancy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ETJ
                ETJ
                10.1159/issn.2235-0640
                European Thyroid Journal
                S. Karger AG
                2235-0640
                2235-0802
                2021
                April 2021
                05 August 2020
                : 10
                : 2
                : 174-178
                Affiliations
                aHospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Fédération d’Endocrinologie, Bron, France
                bService d’Endocrinologie Pédiatrique, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Bron, France
                cCentre de Biologie et de Pathologie Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Est, LBMMS, Bron, France
                dCentre de Biologie et de Pathologie Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Sud, LBMMS, Saint Genis Laval, France
                Author notes
                *Véronique Raverot, Centre de Biologie et de Pathologie Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Est, 59 Boulevard Pinel, FR–69677 Bron (France), veronique.raverot@chu-lyon.fr
                Article
                509015 Eur Thyroid J 2021;10:174–178
                10.1159/000509015
                © 2020 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Clinical Thyroidology / Case Report

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