The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent thrombosis, fetal loss, multiorgan involvement, and the presence of lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin antibody. When not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, other collagen diseases, or ingestion of medications, the condition is called primary APS. The kidney may be involved in the APS syndrome with acute nephritis and renal failure. The cases with renal biopsy studies have shown variable glomerular morphology, ranging from mild mesangial changes to a diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis. The most frequent lesion is thrombotic microangiopathy or features seen in the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Apart from fibrin thrombus deposition, only a few cases have shown focal and segmental deposits of IgG and/or IgM and/or C3. We describe a patient with primary APS who had thrombosis with lower limb amputation and acute renal failure. The renal biopsy specimen showed a focal proliferative glomerulonephritis with endothelial proliferation and damage, with diffuse heavy mesangial deposits of IgA and fibrinogen. This case with diabetes mellitus, but without diabetic nephropathy, represents the occurrence of primary APS and mesangial IgA nephropathy which potentiated the renal injury, leading to acute renal failure. The relationship to the Henoch-Schönlein syndrome is discussed.