Objective The current situation and associated factors of primary and middle school students’ screen time and related eye hygiene in different periods before and after COVID-19 were investigated, so as to provide a scientific basis for taking targeted measures of preventing and controlling myopia among those students.
Methods A total of 11 402 students were selected from 24 primary schools, 18 junior high schools and 16 high schools by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. And a questionnaire survey was conducted among students and their parents to understand students’ screen time and screen hygiene behaviors and related factors in different periods before and after the outbreak of COVID-19.
Results The rate of screen overuse was 7.26%, 9.12% and 35.30% during school days, weekends and home study, respectively. The overuse rate of mobile phones and tablets at home increases with the increase of school stage. Totally 16.30% of students use mobile phones for online learning. The screen overuse rate of those who have not been diagnosed with myopia was lower than that of those who have been diagnosed during home study ( OR = 0.77, P < 0.05). The higher the parents’ educational level was, the lower the screen overuse rate of children during the weekends became ( P < 0.05). In any period, the high proportion of screens used in homework and poor home screen eye environment increased the risk of screen overuse and poor eye hygiene ( P < 0.05). Parental good behavior was conducive to reducing the risk ( OR = 0.65-0.97, P < 0.05). When the family had regulation on the screen use time, the implementation of laxity would increase the risk of screen overuse ( OR = 1.18-2.48, P < 0.05).
Conclusion The screen overuse rate of urban primary and middle school students during home study is high, and a certain proportion of students still use mobile phones for online learning. The proportion of screens used in homework, home screen eye environment and screen use management are related to screens overuse. More attention should be paid to those with myopia and low educational level of parents.
【摘要】 目的调查并分析上海市中小学生在新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情前后不同时期屏幕使用时长和屏幕用眼卫生的现 状及影响因素, 为精准实施中小学生近视防控方案提供科学依据。 方法采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法抽取上海市闵 行区24所小学、18所初中和16所高中的11 402名学生, 进行家长和学生本人问卷调查, 了解在新冠肺炎疫情暴发前后不 同时期中小学生各类屏幕使用时长和屏幕使用卫生行为及相关因素。 结果非疫情平时上学日、非疫情双休日寒暑假和 疫情居家学习期间的屏幕使用过度率分别为7.26%, 9.12%和35.30%。疫情居家学习期间, 手机和平板电脑的使用过度率 随学段升高而升高, 16.30%的中小学生使用手机在线学习。未被诊断为近视者屏幕使用过度率在疫情居家学习期间低于 曾被诊断者( OR = 0.77' < 0.05);父母文化程度越高的孩子在双休日寒暑假期间的屏幕使用过度率越低( P < 0.05)。在任 何时期内, 学校布置的作业中用到屏幕比例高、不良的家庭屏幕用眼环境增加了屏幕使用过度及不良屏幕用眼卫生的风险 ( P值均 < 0.05);父母的榜样行为有利于降低相应的风险( OR = 0.65~0.97, P 值均 < 0.05)。在家庭对屏幕使用时长有规定 的情况下, 实行不严格也会增加使用过度的风险 ( OR = 1.18~2.48, P 值均 < 0.05)。 结论城市中小学生居家学习期间的屏 幕使用过度率较高, 学校作业中的屏幕使用比例、家庭屏幕用眼环境和屏幕使用管理都与中小学生屏幕过度使用有关。需 关注学生使用手机在线学习情况, 巳发生近视和父母文化程度低的学生也是重点关注对象。