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      Failed back surgery syndrome: current perspectives

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          Abstract

          The treatment of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) can be equally challenging to surgeons, pain specialists, and primary care providers alike. The onset of FBSS occurs when surgery fails to treat the patient’s lumbar spinal pain. Minimizing the likelihood of FBSS is dependent on determining a clear etiology of the patient’s pain, recognizing those who are at high risk, and exhausting conservative measures before deciding to go into a revision surgery. The workup of FBSS includes a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and procedures. After determining the cause of FBSS, a multidisciplinary approach is preferred. This includes pharmacologic management of pain, physical therapy, and behavioral modification and may include therapeutic procedures such as injections, radiofrequency ablation, lysis of adhesions, spinal cord stimulation, and even reoperations.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Failed back surgery syndrome.

          Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a chronic pain condition that has considerable impact on the patient and health care system. Despite advances in surgical technology, the rates of failed back surgery have not declined. The factors contributing to the development of this entity may occur in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. Due to the severe pain and disability this syndrome may cause, more radical treatments have been utilized. Recent trials have been published that evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic modalities such as spinal cord stimulation for the management of patients with failed back surgery. This article will describe the epidemiology and etiology of FBSS. The importance of prevention will be emphasized. In those patients with established FBSS, a guide to interdisciplinary evaluation and management will be outlined. Special attention will focus on recent trials that have studied the efficacy of more invasive procedures such as spinal cord stimulation. Finally, a suggested management pathway is presented. FBSS is a challenging clinical entity with significant impact on the individual and society. To better prevent and manage this condition, knowledge of the factors contributing to its development is necessary. While research on FBSS has increased in recent years, perhaps the best strategy to reduce incidence and morbidity is to focus on prevention. Patients diagnosed with FBSS should be managed in an interdisciplinary environment. More radical treatments for FBSS have now been extensively studied providing clinicians with much needed evidence on their efficacy. Incorporating these results into our current knowledge provides a basis on which to construct an evidence-based guide on how best to manage patients who suffer from FBSS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Risk factors for infection after spinal surgery.

            A retrospective case control analysis of 48 cases of postoperative infection following spinal procedures. Spinal procedures that became infected after surgery were analyzed to identify the significance of preoperative and intraoperative risk factors. Characterization of the nature and timing of the infections was also performed. The rate of postoperative infection following spinal surgery varies widely depending on the nature of the procedure and the patient's diagnosis. Preoperative comorbidities and risk factors also influence the likelihood of infection. A review of 1629 procedures performed on 1095 patients revealed that a postoperative infection developed in 48 patients (4.4%). Data regarding preoperative and intraoperative risk factors were gathered from patient charts for these and a randomly selected control group of 95 uninfected patients. For analysis, these patient groups were further divided into adult and pediatric subgroups, with an age cutoff of 18 years. Preoperative risk factors reviewed included smoking, diabetes, previous surgery, previous infection, steroid use, body mass index, and alcohol abuse. Intraoperative factors reviewed included staging of procedures, estimated blood loss, operating time, and use of allograft or instrumentation. The majority of infections occurred during the early postoperative period (less than 3 months). Age >60 years, smoking, diabetes, previous surgical infection, increased body mass index, and alcohol abuse were statistically significant preoperative risk factors. The most likely procedure to be complicated by an infection was a combined anterior/posterior spinal fusion performed in a staged manner under separate anesthesia. Infections were primarily monomicrobial, although 5 patients had more than 4 organisms identified. The most common organism cultured from the wounds was Staphylococcus aureus. All patients were treated with surgical irrigation and débridement, and appropriate antibiotics to treat the cultured organism. Aggressive treatment of patients undergoing complex or prolonged spinal procedures is essential to prevent and treat infections. Understanding a patient's preoperative risk factors may help the physician to optimize a patient's preoperative condition. Additionally, awareness of critical intraoperative parameters will help to optimize surgical treatment. It may be appropriate to increase the duration of prophylactic antibiotics or implement other measures to decrease the incidence of infection for high risk patients.
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              Electrical inhibition of pain by stimulation of the dorsal columns: preliminary clinical report.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                07 November 2016
                : 9
                : 979-987
                Affiliations
                Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Michael A. Erdek, M.D., 550 N. Broadway, Suite 301 Baltimore, MD 21205, Email merdek@ 123456jhmi.edu
                Zafeer B. Baber, M.D. 550 N. Broadway, Suite 301 Baltimore, MD 21205, Email zbaber1@ 123456jhmi.edu
                Article
                jpr-9-979
                10.2147/JPR.S92776
                5106227
                © 2016 Baber and Erdek. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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