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      Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer


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          The criterion-related validity and measurement bias of the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was compared to the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR).


          Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women ( N = 159, average age 57 years) wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR.


          The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher ( p < 0.001) than the IPAQ (0.73 vs. 0.33, respectively). The PAR and IPAQ overestimated total physical activity by 13% vs. 247%, respectively. The PAR had better sensitivity (p = 0.14) and specificity (p < .01) than the IPAQ (100% vs. 71% and 84% vs. 59%, respectively) in predicting attainment of the ACSM physical activity guideline.


          The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics.

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          Most cited references23

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          Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement.

          In clinical measurement comparison of a new measurement technique with an established one is often needed to see whether they agree sufficiently for the new to replace the old. Such investigations are often analysed inappropriately, notably by using correlation coefficients. The use of correlation is misleading. An alternative approach, based on graphical techniques and simple calculations, is described, together with the relation between this analysis and the assessment of repeatability.
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            Calibration of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. accelerometer.

            We established accelerometer count ranges for the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. (CSA) activity monitor corresponding to commonly employed MET categories. Data were obtained from 50 adults (25 males, 25 females) during treadmill exercise at three different speeds (4.8, 6.4, and 9.7 km x h(-1)). Activity counts and steady-state oxygen consumption were highly correlated (r = 0.88), and count ranges corresponding to light, moderate, hard, and very hard intensity levels were or = 9499 cnts x min(-1), respectively. A model to predict energy expenditure from activity counts and body mass was developed using data from a random sample of 35 subjects (r2 = 0.82, SEE = 1.40 kcal x min(-1)). Cross validation with data from the remaining 15 subjects revealed no significant differences between actual and predicted energy expenditure at any treadmill speed (SEE = 0.50-1.40 kcal x min(-1)). These data provide a template on which patterns of activity can be classified into intensity levels using the CSA accelerometer.
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              Physical activity assessment methodology in the Five-City Project.

              Previous measures of physical activity for epidemiologic studies were considered inadequate to meet the needs of a community-based health education trial. Therefore, new methods of quantifying the physical activity habits of communities were developed which are practical for large health surveys, provide information on the distribution of activity habits in the population, can detect changes in activity over time, and can be compared with other epidemiologic studies of physical activity. Independent self-reports of vigorous activity (at least 6 metabolic equivalents (METs) ), moderate activity (3-5 METs), and total energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) are described, and the physical activity practices of samples of California cities are presented. Relationships between physical activity measures and age, education, occupation, ethnicity, marital status, and body mass index are analyzed, and the reliabilities of the three activity indices are reported. The new assessment procedure is contrasted with nine other measures of physical activity used in community surveys.

                Author and article information

                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
                BioMed Central (London )
                31 March 2006
                : 3
                : 7
                [1 ]San Diego State University Research Foundation, 9245 Sky Park Court, San Diego, CA 92123, USA
                [2 ]San Diego State University, Department of Psychology, 3900 Fifth Avenue, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
                [3 ]University of California, San Diego, Family and Preventive Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
                Copyright © 2006 Marilyn et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 1 December 2005
                : 31 March 2006

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Nutrition & Dietetics


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