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The gingival health status of 8–12 year-old children in Damascus city in Syria during the Syrian Crisis: a cross-sectional epidemiological oral health survey

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      Abstract

      Objective

      The aim of this study was to assess the current gingival health status in children aged 8–12 years in Damascus city. No contemporary data was available with an immense need for studies evaluating the gingival health status in Syrian children, especially under the current circumstances of the Syrian crisis.

      Results

      The study followed the school-based health survey model using stratified random cluster sampling. A total of 1500 children were clinically examined. The mean PI was at (1.39 ± 0.57) and the mean GI was at (1.12 ± 0.46). Of the total sample, (97.93%) had gingivitis. There is a statistically significant relationship between the used indices means and the children’s distribution as to the city’s localities. Also, there is a statistically significant relationship between the used indices means and the children’s gender. Gingival health was seen to be better and plaque accumulations were less in females. The gingival health status is moderate and is within the acceptable ranges while the plaque accumulations are right above moderate. Still, gingivitis prevalence is high and special care as well as developing and implementing advanced preventive programmes are highly needed.

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      Most cited references 11

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      Oral health status of 12-year-old school children in Khartoum state, the Sudan; a school-based survey

      Background Few studies have investigated the prevalence of dental caries among school children in the past decades in Sudan rendering it difficult to understand the status and pattern of oral health. Methods A school-based survey was conducted using stratified random cluster sampling in Khartoum state, Sudan. Data was collected through interviews and clinical examination by a single examiner. DMFT was measured according to WHO criteria. Gingival index (GI) of Loe & Silness and Plaque index (PI) of Silness & Loe were used. Results The mean DMFT for 12-year-olds was found to be 0.42 with a significant caries index (SiC) of 1.4. Private school attendees had significantly higher DMFT (0.57) when compared to public school attendees (0.4). The untreated caries prevalence was 30.5%. In multivariate analysis caries experience (DMFT > 0) was found to be significantly and directly associated with socioeconomic status. The mean GI for the six index teeth was found to be 1.05 (CI 1.03 – 1.07) and the mean PI was 1.30 (CI 1.22 – 1.38). Conclusion The prevalence of caries was found to be low. The school children with the higher socioeconomic status formed the high risk group.
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        Oral health status and treatment needs among school children in Sana'a City, Yemen.

        Data on the oral health status and treatment needs among Yemeni children are lacking. To assess caries prevalence, treatment needs and gingival health status among school children in Sana'a City and to examine how these are affected by age, gender and khat chewing. 1489 children (6- to 14-year old) were randomly selected from 27 schools representing all nine districts of Sana'a City. Dental caries and treatment needs were evaluated using standard WHO oral survey methods. The plaque index (PI), calculus index (CI) and the gingival index (GI), recorded at the six Ramfjord's teeth, were used to assess gingival health status. 4.1% of the study subjects were caries-free. Prevalence of these was significantly higher among the males. Overall, mean dmfs, dmft, DMFS and DMFT scores were 8.45, 4.16, 3.59 and 2.25 respectively. The decayed component accounted for >85% of the scores. The highest dmfs/dmft means were found among the 6-8 years age group, while the highest DMFS/DMFT means were scored by the 12-14 years age group. The need for restorative treatment and extractions was high; the former was significantly higher among the females. All subjects had gingivitis; the mean PI, CI and GI were 1.25, 0.3 and 1.36 respectively. Khat chewing did not affect caries experience; however, it was significantly associated with higher PI, CI and GI scores. The prevalence of caries, gingivitis and treatment needs among children in Sana'a city is high. More surveys in other Yemeni cities to generate comprehensive data are required.
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          Oral health status and behaviours of children in Myanmar - a pilot study in four villages in rural areas.

          To describe the tooth status, periodontal status, oral hygiene and snacking habits of children in four villages in northeastern Myanmar. This was a cross-sectional study using a convenient sampling protocol. All children ages 5 and 12 years from four villages were examined by an experienced epidemiologist, and the status of their primary and permanent dentition, respectively, was reported using the diagnostic criteria recommended by the World Health Organisation. A parental questionnaire survey was performed to study the children's habits. A total of 95 5-year-old and 80 12-year-old children were examined. It was found that 94% and 39% of the 5- and 12-year-old children, respectively, had never brushed their teeth. Few children had snacking habits. Most of the children - 75% of the 5-year-olds and 85% of the 12-year-olds - had no caries experience. The mean dmft score of the 5-year-olds was 0.9, while the mean DMFT score of the 12-year-olds was 0.2. Signs of moderate to severe gingivitis were found in 42% of the 5-year-olds, and 40% of the 12-year-olds had dental calculus. The prevalence and severity of dental caries among the children in the four villages in northeastern Myanmar was low. Their oral hygiene habits and periodontal conditions were not satisfactory and need to be improved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2353 3326, GRID grid.8192.2, Paediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, , Damascus University, ; Damascus, Syria
            [2 ]Centre for Measurement & Evaluation in Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education, Damascus, Syria
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4961-0611, dr.muhammed.alhuda@gmail.com
            mdashash@yahoo.com
            Journal
            BMC Res Notes
            BMC Res Notes
            BMC Research Notes
            BioMed Central (London )
            1756-0500
            13 December 2018
            13 December 2018
            2018
            : 11
            30545414
            6293583
            3998
            10.1186/s13104-018-3998-x
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Categories
            Research Note
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Medicine

            gingivitis, syria, children, gingival index, plaque index, oral health, prevalence

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