Background/Aims: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are prone to developing peptic ulcers. However, of all the risk factors associated with peptic ulcers, none have been shown to be more prevalent in HD patients than in the general population. However, salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) may play a role in peptic ulcer diseases. Methods: Salivary EGF levels and bioactivities were assayed in 47 maintenance HD patients and 30 normal controls, and the molecular weights of EGF were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Salivary EGF levels were not different between both groups of subjects (4.2 ± 0.34 vs. 5 ± 0.54 ng/mg protein, NS), and HPLC revealed that salivary EGF in both groups had similar molecular weights. However, salivary EGF bioactivity was significantly depressed in the HD patients as compared to the normal controls (0.59 ± 0.08 vs. 1.55 ± 0.15 ng/mg protein, p < 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression showed that the low salivary EGF levels were associated with female gender (p < 0.05), while low salivary EGF bioactivity was associated with HD per se (p < 0.05). In the 22 HD patients who underwent gastric endoscopy, salivary EGF bioactivity was significantly lower in those with peptic ulcers than in those without (0.38 ± 0.08 vs. 0.69 ± 0.08 ng/mg protein, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Decreased salivary EGF bioactivity may contribute to peptic ulcer disease among maintenance HD patients.