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Noninvasive Predictors of Malignant Arrhythmias

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Abstract

Background: Prediction and potential prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA) represent an obvious unmet medical need. We estimated the prognostic relevance of numerous biomarkers associated with future MVA development in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) over 2 years of follow-up. Methods: Patients with stable documented CAD (n = 97) with a mean age of 61 ± 10 years were prospectively enrolled in a single-center observational cohort study. Heart failure was diagnosed in 68% of the patients (NYHA class II-III). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50 ± 13%, while 20% of patients had LVEF ≤35%. Sixty-two patients underwent myocardial revascularization during the follow-up (mean 25 ± 11 months). Clinical characteristics (age, gender, diabetes, history of coronary disease and arrhythmias, prior interventions and antecedent medications), noninvasive electrophysiological markers [microvolt T-wave alterations, signal-averaged electrocardiography, QT interval duration and alteration, and heart rate turbulence (HRT) and HR variability], laboratory indices [serum creatinine and creatinine clearance, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), NT-proBNP, and C-reactive protein and troponin T levels] were assessed with regard to the MVA prognosis. Results: MVA was diagnosed in 11 patients during the prospective follow-up. Prior percutaneous coronary intervention (p < 0.05), MVA or syncope (p < 0.05), on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during follow-up (p < 0.01), LVEF ≤47% (p < 0.01), a left atrium size ≥4.7 cm (p < 0.05), left atrium index (p = 0.01), filtered QRS duration (p < 0.05), abnormal HRT (χ2 = 6.2, p = 0.01) or turbulence slope (χ2 = 9.5, p < 0.01), BNP ≥158 pg/ml (p < 0.01) and NT-proBNP ≥787 pg/ml (χ2 = 4.4, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with MVA risk by univariate analysis. However, only prior MVA or syncope [odds ratio (OR) 11.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-44.4; p < 0.01], abnormal HRT (ОR 13.6; 95% CI 2.8-66.1; p < 0.01) and plasma BNP (ОR 14.3; 95% CI 3.2-65.0; p < 0.01) remained independent predictors of MVA occurrence by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Conclusion: Prior syncope or MVA, HRT and elevated plasma BNP were independent MVA predictors, advocating for the prospective screening of high-risk CAD patients for potential SCD awareness.

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Most cited references 19

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Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction.

Patients with reduced left ventricular function after myocardial infarction are at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an implantable defibrillator on survival in such patients. Over the course of four years, we enrolled 1232 patients with a prior myocardial infarction and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.30 or less. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive an implantable defibrillator (742 patients) or conventional medical therapy (490 patients). Invasive electrophysiological testing for risk stratification was not required. Death from any cause was the end point. The clinical characteristics at base line and the prevalence of medication use at the time of the last follow-up visit were similar in the two treatment groups. During an average follow-up of 20 months, the mortality rates were 19.8 percent in the conventional-therapy group and 14.2 percent in the defibrillator group. The hazard ratio for the risk of death from any cause in the defibrillator group as compared with the conventional-therapy group was 0.69 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.93; P=0.016). The effect of defibrillator therapy on survival was similar in subgroup analyses stratified according to age, sex, ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, and the QRS interval. In patients with a prior myocardial infarction and advanced left ventricular dysfunction, prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator improves survival and should be considered as a recommended therapy.
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Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure.

Sudden death from cardiac causes remains a leading cause of death among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Treatment with amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been proposed to improve the prognosis in such patients. We randomly assigned 2521 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III CHF and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 35 percent or less to conventional therapy for CHF plus placebo (847 patients), conventional therapy plus amiodarone (845 patients), or conventional therapy plus a conservatively programmed, shock-only, single-lead ICD (829 patients). Placebo and amiodarone were administered in a double-blind fashion. The primary end point was death from any cause. The median LVEF in patients was 25 percent; 70 percent were in NYHA class II, and 30 percent were in class III CHF. The cause of CHF was ischemic in 52 percent and nonischemic in 48 percent. The median follow-up was 45.5 months. There were 244 deaths (29 percent) in the placebo group, 240 (28 percent) in the amiodarone group, and 182 (22 percent) in the ICD group. As compared with placebo, amiodarone was associated with a similar risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.06; 97.5 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.30; P=0.53) and ICD therapy was associated with a decreased risk of death of 23 percent (0.77; 97.5 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.007) and an absolute decrease in mortality of 7.2 percentage points after five years in the overall population. Results did not vary according to either ischemic or nonischemic causes of CHF, but they did vary according to the NYHA class. In patients with NYHA class II or III CHF and LVEF of 35 percent or less, amiodarone has no favorable effect on survival, whereas single-lead, shock-only ICD therapy reduces overall mortality by 23 percent. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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Regional variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcome.

The health and policy implications of regional variation in incidence and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remain to be determined. To evaluate whether cardiac arrest incidence and outcome differ across geographic regions. Prospective observational study (the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium) of all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in 10 North American sites (8 US and 2 Canadian) from May 1, 2006, to April 30, 2007, followed up to hospital discharge, and including data available as of June 28, 2008. Cases (aged 0-108 years) were assessed by organized emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, did not have traumatic injury, and received attempts at external defibrillation or chest compressions or resuscitation was not attempted. Census data were used to determine rates adjusted for age and sex. Incidence rate, mortality rate, case-fatality rate, and survival to discharge for patients assessed or treated by EMS personnel or with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. Among the 10 sites, the total catchment population was 21.4 million, and there were 20,520 cardiac arrests. A total of 11,898 (58.0%) had resuscitation attempted; 2729 (22.9% of treated) had initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia or rhythms that were shockable by an automated external defibrillator; and 954 (4.6% of total) were discharged alive. The median incidence of EMS-treated cardiac arrest across sites was 52.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 48.0-70.1) per 100,000 population; survival ranged from 3.0% to 16.3%, with a median of 8.4% (IQR, 5.4%-10.4%). Median ventricular fibrillation incidence was 12.6 (IQR, 10.6-5.2) per 100,000 population; survival ranged from 7.7% to 39.9%, with a median of 22.0% (IQR, 15.0%-24.4%), with significant differences across sites for incidence and survival (P<.001). In this study involving 10 geographic regions in North America, there were significant and important regional differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcome.

Author and article information

Affiliations
aBakoulev Scientific Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, Moscow, Russia; bHeartDrug™ Research Laboratories, Johns Hopkins University, Towson, Md., USA
Journal
CRD
Cardiology
10.1159/issn.0008-6312
Cardiology
Cardiology
S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
0008-6312
1421-9751
August 2016
18 May 2016
: 135
: 1
: 36-42
© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 7
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