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      Noninvasive Predictors of Malignant Arrhythmias

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          Background: Prediction and potential prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA) represent an obvious unmet medical need. We estimated the prognostic relevance of numerous biomarkers associated with future MVA development in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) over 2 years of follow-up. Methods: Patients with stable documented CAD (n = 97) with a mean age of 61 ± 10 years were prospectively enrolled in a single-center observational cohort study. Heart failure was diagnosed in 68% of the patients (NYHA class II-III). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50 ± 13%, while 20% of patients had LVEF ≤35%. Sixty-two patients underwent myocardial revascularization during the follow-up (mean 25 ± 11 months). Clinical characteristics (age, gender, diabetes, history of coronary disease and arrhythmias, prior interventions and antecedent medications), noninvasive electrophysiological markers [microvolt T-wave alterations, signal-averaged electrocardiography, QT interval duration and alteration, and heart rate turbulence (HRT) and HR variability], laboratory indices [serum creatinine and creatinine clearance, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), NT-proBNP, and C-reactive protein and troponin T levels] were assessed with regard to the MVA prognosis. Results: MVA was diagnosed in 11 patients during the prospective follow-up. Prior percutaneous coronary intervention (p < 0.05), MVA or syncope (p < 0.05), on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during follow-up (p < 0.01), LVEF ≤47% (p < 0.01), a left atrium size ≥4.7 cm (p < 0.05), left atrium index (p = 0.01), filtered QRS duration (p < 0.05), abnormal HRT (χ 2 = 6.2, p = 0.01) or turbulence slope (χ 2 = 9.5, p < 0.01), BNP ≥158 pg/ml (p < 0.01) and NT-proBNP ≥787 pg/ml (χ 2 = 4.4, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with MVA risk by univariate analysis. However, only prior MVA or syncope [odds ratio (OR) 11.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-44.4; p < 0.01], abnormal HRT (ОR 13.6; 95% CI 2.8-66.1; p < 0.01) and plasma BNP (ОR 14.3; 95% CI 3.2-65.0; p < 0.01) remained independent predictors of MVA occurrence by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Conclusion: Prior syncope or MVA, HRT and elevated plasma BNP were independent MVA predictors, advocating for the prospective screening of high-risk CAD patients for potential SCD awareness.

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          Regional variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcome.

          The health and policy implications of regional variation in incidence and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remain to be determined. To evaluate whether cardiac arrest incidence and outcome differ across geographic regions. Prospective observational study (the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium) of all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in 10 North American sites (8 US and 2 Canadian) from May 1, 2006, to April 30, 2007, followed up to hospital discharge, and including data available as of June 28, 2008. Cases (aged 0-108 years) were assessed by organized emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, did not have traumatic injury, and received attempts at external defibrillation or chest compressions or resuscitation was not attempted. Census data were used to determine rates adjusted for age and sex. Incidence rate, mortality rate, case-fatality rate, and survival to discharge for patients assessed or treated by EMS personnel or with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. Among the 10 sites, the total catchment population was 21.4 million, and there were 20,520 cardiac arrests. A total of 11,898 (58.0%) had resuscitation attempted; 2729 (22.9% of treated) had initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia or rhythms that were shockable by an automated external defibrillator; and 954 (4.6% of total) were discharged alive. The median incidence of EMS-treated cardiac arrest across sites was 52.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 48.0-70.1) per 100,000 population; survival ranged from 3.0% to 16.3%, with a median of 8.4% (IQR, 5.4%-10.4%). Median ventricular fibrillation incidence was 12.6 (IQR, 10.6-5.2) per 100,000 population; survival ranged from 7.7% to 39.9%, with a median of 22.0% (IQR, 15.0%-24.4%), with significant differences across sites for incidence and survival (P<.001). In this study involving 10 geographic regions in North America, there were significant and important regional differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcome.
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            2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update incorporated into the ACCF/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

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              Baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in the identification of patients at risk for life-threatening arrhythmias: implications for clinical trials.

              The need for accurate risk stratification is heightened by the expanding indications for the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) focused interest on patients with both depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the presence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). Meanwhile, the prospective study Autonomic Tone and Reflexes After Myocardial Infarctio (ATRAMI) demonstrated that markers of reduced vagal activity, such as depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) an heart rate variability (HRV), are strong predictors of cardiac mortality after myocardial infarction. We analyzed 1071 ATRAMI patients after myocardial infarction who had data on LVEF, 24-hour ECG recording, and BRS. During follow-up (21 +/- 8 months), 43 patients experienced cardiac death, 5 patients had episodes of sustained VT, and 30 patients experienced sudden death and/or sustained VT. NSVT, depressed BRS, or HRV were all significantly and independently associated with increased mortality. The combination of all 3 risk factor increased the risk of death by 22x. Among patients with LVEF<35%, despite the absence of NSVT, depressed BRS predicted higher mortality (18% versus 4.6%, P = 0.01). This is a clinically important finding because this grou constitutes 25% of all patients with depressed LVEF. For both cardiac and arrhythmic mortality, the sensitivity of lo BRS was higher than that of NSVT and HRV CONCLUSIONS: BRS and HRV contribute importantly and additionally to risk stratification. Particularly when LVEF is depressed, the analysis of BRS identifies a large number of patients at high risk for cardiac and arrhythmic mortalit who might benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy without disproportionately increasing the number of false-positives.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                August 2016
                18 May 2016
                : 135
                : 1
                : 36-42
                aBakoulev Scientific Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, Moscow, Russia; bHeartDrug™ Research Laboratories, Johns Hopkins University, Towson, Md., USA
                CRD2016135001036 Cardiology 2016;135:36-42
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 7
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