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      Evaluation of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Management

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          Abstract

          Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common pathogen of opportunistic viral infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic outcome of our treatment regimen of CMV retinitis by analysing retrospectively 33 consecutive patients. The clinical utility of CMV cultures from blood, urine and throat specimens obtained at the time of diagnosis was additionally evaluated. Treatment started with ganciclovir (GCV) therapy. In case of relapsing retinitis, re-induction therapy was initiated, and if unsuccessful, the patient was switched to foscarnet. Patients developing resistant retinitis despite foscarnet therapy were offered a GCV-foscarnet combination therapy. Under primary GCV therapy, the median first stable interval of the whole group was 202 days (mean 238 days). Twenty-five out of 33 CMV retinitis patients (76%) responded to initial GCV therapy. Eleven of these patients showed relapsing retinitis that could be stabilised in 3 patients solely with combination therapy. Eight patients did not respond to primary GCV therapy. Three of them improved with foscarnet, but 3 patients did not respond to either treatment. In 18 (56%) out of 32 patients, CMV cultures yielded positive results. Considering our series, we may conclude that in the majority of patients primary or secondary viral resistance can be overcome by dose increase, switching to the alternative drug or a combination therapy.

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          Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

          Treatment of infected patients with ABT-538, an inhibitor of the protease of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), causes plasma HIV-1 levels to decrease exponentially (mean half-life, 2.1 +/- 0.4 days) and CD4 lymphocyte counts to rise substantially. Minimum estimates of HIV-1 production and clearance and of CD4 lymphocyte turnover indicate that replication of HIV-1 in vivo is continuous and highly productive, driving the rapid turnover of CD4 lymphocytes.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            OPH
            Ophthalmologica
            10.1159/issn.0030-3755
            Ophthalmologica
            S. Karger AG
            0030-3755
            1423-0267
            1998
            August 1998
            18 June 1998
            : 212
            : 4
            : 239-243
            Affiliations
            aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Division B bDepartment of Dermatology, Division of Immunology, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and cInstitute for Medical Statistics, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna, Austria
            Article
            27300 Ophthalmologica 1998;212:239–243
            10.1159/000027300
            9672212
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Pages: 5
            Categories
            Original Paper · Travail original · Originalarbeit

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