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      Recommendations for the use of opioids in Brazil: Part III. Use in special situations (postoperative pain, musculoskeletal pain, neuropathic pain, gestation and lactation) Translated title: Recomendações para uso de opioides no Brasil: Parte III. Uso em situações especiais (dor pós-operatória, dor musculoesquelética, dor neuropática, gestação e lactação)

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          Abstract

          BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of opioids as first and second line agents to adequately treat pain requires systematization in different clinical syndromes which course with acute pain. This study aimed at discussing recommendations for the use of opioids in acute postoperative pain, neuropathic pain, musculoskeletal pain and pain during gestation and lactation.CONTENTS: This review has addressed the use of opioids in frequent chronic and acute painful syndromes, in gestation and lactation, discussing indications, drugs used, doses, risks, complications and recommendations.CONCLUSION: Opioids for acute postoperative pain have been broadly studied and are established for minor medium and major surgeries. Recommendations for the use of opioids in neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain are restricted to second line treatment and require further discussions. Few studies have investigated the interaction of opioids with physiologic changes typical of gestation and the repercussions of the use of such agents to treat acute and chronic pain in the short and long term.

          Translated abstract

          JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O emprego de opioides como agentes de primeira e segunda linha no tratamento da dor ainda é motivo de discussão na literatura. O uso de opioides de maneira adequada exige sistematização em diversas síndromes clínicas que cursam com dor aguda e crônica. O objetivo deste estudo foi discutir recomendações para o emprego de opioides na dor aguda de pós-operatório, na dor neuropática, na dor musculoesquelética e na dor durante a gestação e lactação.CONTEÚDO: Nesta revisão abordou-se o emprego de opioides em síndromes dolorosas agudas e crônicas frequentes, na gestação e lactação discutindo as indicações, os fármacos utilizados, as doses, os riscos, as complicações e as recomendações.CONCLUSÃO: O uso de opioides na dor aguda pós-operatória tem sido bem estudado e está estabelecido em cirurgias de pequeno, médio e grande porte. As recomendações para o emprego de opioides na dor neuropática e musculoesquelética são restritas à segunda linha de tratamento e exigem futuras discussões. Poucos estudos investigaram a interação dos opioides com as alterações fisiológicas próprias da gestação e as repercussões do emprego desses agentes no tratamento da dor aguda e crônica em curto e em longo prazo.

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          Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: an evidence based proposal.

          New studies of the treatment of neuropathic pain have increased the need for an updated review of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to support an evidence based algorithm to treat neuropathic pain conditions. Available studies were identified using a MEDLINE and EMBASE search. One hundred and five studies were included. Numbers needed to treat (NNT) and numbers needed to harm (NNH) were used to compare efficacy and safety of the treatments in different neuropathic pain syndromes. The quality of each trial was assessed. Tricyclic antidepressants and the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin were the most frequently studied drug classes. In peripheral neuropathic pain, the lowest NNT was for tricyclic antidepressants, followed by opioids and the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin. For central neuropathic pain there is limited data. NNT and NNH are currently the best way to assess relative efficacy and safety, but the need for dichotomous data, which may have to be estimated retrospectively for old trials, and the methodological complexity of pooling data from small cross-over and large parallel group trials, remain as limitations.
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            Effects of perioperative analgesic technique on the surgical outcome and duration of rehabilitation after major knee surgery.

            Continuous passive motion after major knee surgery optimizes the functional prognosis but causes severe pain. The authors tested the hypothesis that postoperative analgesic techniques influence surgical outcome and the duration of convalescence. Before standardized general anesthesia, 56 adult scheduled for major knee surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups, each to receive a different postoperative analgesic technique for 72 h: continuous epidural infusion, continuous femoral block, or intravenous patient-controlled morphine (dose, 1 mg; lockout interval, 7 min; maximum dose, 30 mg/4 h). The first two techniques were performed using a solution of 1% lidocaine, 0.03 mg/ml morphine, and 2 microg/ml clonidine administered at 0.1 ml x kg(-1) x h(-1). Pain was assessed at rest and during continuous passive motion using a visual analog scale. The early postoperative maximal amplitude of knee flexion was measured during continuous passive motion at 24 h and 48 h and compared with the target levels prescribed by the surgeon. To evaluate functional outcome, the maximal amplitudes were measured again on postoperative day 5, at hospital discharge (day 7), and at 1- and 3-month follow-up examinations. When the patients left the surgical ward, they were admitted to a rehabilitation center, where their length of stay depended on prospectively determined discharge criteria The continuous epidural infusion and continuous femoral block groups showed significantly lower visual analog scale scores at rest and during continuous passive motion compared with the patient-controlled morphine group. The early postoperative knee mobilization levels in both continuous epidural infusion and continuous femoral block groups were significantly closer to the target levels prescribed by the surgeon than in the patient-controlled morphine group. On postoperative day 7, these values were 90 degrees (60-100 degrees)(median and 25th-75th percentiles) in the continuous epidural infusion group, 90 degrees (60-100 degrees) in the continuous femoral block group, and 80 degrees (60-100 degrees) in the patient-controlled morphine group (P < 0.05). The durations of stay in the rehabilitation center were significantly shorter: 37 days (range, 30-45 days) in the continuous epidural infusion group, 40 days (range, 31-60 days) in the continuous femoral block group, and 50 days (range, 30-80 days) in the patient-controlled morphine group (P < 0.05). Side effects were encountered more frequently in the continuous epidural infusion group. Regional analgesic techniques improve early rehabilitation after major knee surgery by effectively controlling pain during continuous passive motion, thereby hastening convalescence.
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              Prescription drug use in pregnancy.

              The purpose of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of the use of prescription drugs among pregnant women in the United States. A retrospective study was conducted with the use of the automated databases of 8 health maintenance organizations that are involved in the Health Maintenance Research Network Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics. Women who delivered of an infant in a hospital from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2000, were identified. Prescription drug use according to therapeutic class and the United States Food and Drug Administration risk classification system was evaluated, with the assumption of a gestational duration of 270 days, with three 90-day trimesters of pregnancy, and with a 90-day period before pregnancy. Nonprescription drug use was not assessed. During the period 1996 through 2000, 152,531 deliveries were identified that met the criteria for study. For 98,182 deliveries (64%), a drug other than a vitamin or mineral supplement was prescribed in the 270 days before delivery: 3595 women (2.4%) received a drug from category A; 76,292 women (50.0%) received a drug from category B; 57,604 women (37.8%) received a drug from category C; 7333 women (4.8%) received a drug from category D, and 6976 women (4.6%) received a drug from category X of the United States Food and Drug Administration risk classification system. Overall, 5157 women (3.4%) received a category D drug, and 1653 women (1.1%) received a category X drug after the initial prenatal care visit. Our finding that almost one half of all pregnant women received prescription drugs from categories C, D, or X of the United States Food and Drug Administration risk classification system highlights the importance of the need to understand the effects of these medications on the developing fetus and on the pregnant woman.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rdor
                Revista Dor
                Rev. dor
                Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor (São Paulo )
                2317-6393
                June 2014
                : 15
                : 2
                : 126-132
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal da Bahia Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [4 ] Universidade Federal do Maranhão Brazil
                Article
                S1806-00132014000200126
                10.5935/1806-0013.20140030
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                CLINICAL NEUROLOGY
                CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
                NEUROSCIENCES

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