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      Interprofessional Education and Collaboration: Strategies for Implementation

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          Abstract

          Interprofessional education (IPE) is an integral educational outlook that is necessary to make sure that the graduates of an allied health care education are able to be valuable members or leaders of collaborative healthcare practices. Literature and resources are available about various models that have been used by different institutions to integrate IPE as part of their curriculum. With the growing need for collaborative practice, the curriculum must be designed to foster competencies required for IPE. There are challenges present, but with the concerted effort of the administration, faculty, and students, the benefits of IPE can be enjoyed by the institution and eventually by patients.

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          Interprofessional education: definitions, student competencies, and guidelines for implementation.

          Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important step in advancing health professional education for many years and has been endorsed by the Institute of Medicine as a mechanism to improve the overall quality of health care. IPE has also become an area of focus for the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), with several groups, including these authors from the AACP Interprofessional Education Task Force, working on developing resources to promote and support IPE planning and development. This review provides background on the definition of IPE, evidence to support IPE, the need for IPE, student competencies and objectives for IPE, barriers to implementation of IPE, and elements critical for successfully implementing IPE.
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            Pros and cons of vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum: examples and experiences from Linköping, Sweden.

            Problem-based learning (PBL), combined with early patient contact, multiprofessional education and emphasis on development of communications skills, has become the basis for the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping (FHS), Sweden, which was started in 1986. Important elements in the curriculum are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science parts of the curriculum and horizontal integration between different subject areas. This article discusses the importance of vertical integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to experiences from the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping, and also give examples on how it has been implemented during the latest 15 years. Results and views put forward in published articles concerning vertical integration within undergraduate medical education are discussed in relation to the experiences in Linköping. Vertical integration between basic sciences and clinical medicine in a PBL setting has been found to stimulate profound rather than superficial learning, and thereby stimulates better understanding of important biomedical principles. Integration probably leads to better retention of knowledge and the ability to apply basic science principles in the appropriate clinical context. Integration throughout the whole curriculum entails a lot of time and work in respect of planning, organization and execution. The teachers have to be deeply involved and enthusiastic and have to cooperate over departmental borders, which may produce positive spin-off effects in teaching and research but also conflicts that have to be resolved. The authors believe vertical integration supports PBL and stimulates deep and lifelong learning.
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              Interprofessional Education for Whom? — Challenges and Lessons Learned from Its Implementation in Developed Countries and Their Application to Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

              Background Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. Methods We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. Results A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. Conclusion This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these challenges and barriers in advance, those who implement IPE programs in developing countries will be much more prepared, and can enhance the program's potential success.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oman Med J
                Oman Med J
                OMJ
                Oman Medical Journal
                OMJ
                1999-768X
                2070-5204
                31 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 35
                : 4
                : e160
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Maternal and Child Health Nursing, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
                [2 ]Department of Fundamentals and Administration, College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
                [3 ]School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University GPO, Perth, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: judie@ 123456squ.edu.om
                Article
                OMJ-35-04-1800175
                10.5001/omj.2020.83
                7430136
                254e9fd8-87fa-4b00-9b96-04c3ead64c9d
                The OMJ is Published Bimonthly and Copyrighted 2020 by the OMSB.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC) 4.0 License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                History
                : 22 October 2018
                : 11 February 2019
                Categories
                Review Article
                Review Article

                professional practice,students,curriculum
                professional practice, students, curriculum

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