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      Factors associated with the prescription of inhaled corticosteroids in GOLD group A and B patients with COPD – subgroup analysis of the Taiwan obstructive lung disease cohort

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          Abstract

          Background and objective

          The overprescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in the current Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group A and B patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not uncommon in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with the use of ICS in these patients.

          Methods

          The Taiwan obstructive lung disease (TOLD) study was a retrospective, observational nationwide survey of COPD patients conducted at 12 hospitals (n=1,096) in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the predictors of ICS prescription in GOLD group A and B patients.

          Results

          Among the group A (n=179) and group B (n=398) patients, 198 (34.3%) were prescribed ICS (30.2% in group A and 36.2% in group B, respectively). The wheezing phenotype was present in 28.5% of group A and 34.2% of group B patients. Wheezing was the most significant factor for an ICS prescription in group A (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–4.75; P=0.020), group B (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.24–2.99; P=0.004), and overall (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.40–2.96; P<0.001). The COPD assessment test score was also associated with an ICS prescription in group B (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07; P=0.038).

          Conclusion

          About one-third of the GOLD group A and B patients with COPD in Taiwan are prescribed ICS. Our findings suggest that wheezing and COPD assessment test score are related to the prescription of ICS in these patients.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD.

          Treatment guidelines recommend the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators to alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-very-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but do not specify whether a long-acting anticholinergic drug or a β(2)-agonist is the preferred agent. We investigated whether the anticholinergic drug tiotropium is superior to the β(2)-agonist salmeterol in preventing exacerbations of COPD. In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group trial, we compared the effect of treatment with 18 μg of tiotropium once daily with that of 50 μg of salmeterol twice daily on the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the preceding year. A total of 7376 patients were randomly assigned to and treated with tiotropium (3707 patients) or salmeterol (3669 patients). Tiotropium, as compared with salmeterol, increased the time to the first exacerbation (187 days vs. 145 days), with a 17% reduction in risk (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.90; P<0.001). Tiotropium also increased the time to the first severe exacerbation (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.85; P<0.001), reduced the annual number of moderate or severe exacerbations (0.64 vs. 0.72; rate ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.96; P=0.002), and reduced the annual number of severe exacerbations (0.09 vs. 0.13; rate ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.82; P<0.001). Overall, the incidence of serious adverse events and of adverse events leading to the discontinuation of treatment was similar in the two study groups. There were 64 deaths (1.7%) in the tiotropium group and 78 (2.1%) in the salmeterol group. These results show that, in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol in preventing exacerbations. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00563381.).
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            Mechanisms and impact of the frequent exacerbator phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

            Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events that carry significant consequences for patients. Some patients experience frequent exacerbations, and are now recognized as a distinct clinical subgroup, the ‘frequent exacerbator’ phenotype. This is relatively stable over time, occurs across disease severity, and is associated with poorer health outcomes. These patients are therefore a priority for research and treatment. The pathophysiology underlying the frequent exacerbator phenotype is complex, with increased airway and systemic inflammation, dynamic lung hyperinflation, changes in lower airway bacterial colonization and a possible increased susceptibility to viral infection. Frequent exacerbators are also at increased risk from comorbid extrapulmonary diseases including cardiovascular disease, gastroesophageal reflux, depression, osteoporosis and cognitive impairment. Overall these patients have poorer health status, accelerated forced expiratory volume over 1 s (FEV1) decline, worsened quality of life, and increased hospital admissions and mortality, contributing to increased exacerbation susceptibility and perpetuation of the frequent exacerbator phenotype. This review article sets out the definition and importance of the frequent exacerbator phenotype, with a detailed examination of its pathophysiology, impact and interaction with other comorbidities.
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              Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS): current literature review.

              Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic diseases, very common in general population. These obstructive airway illnesses are manifested with chronic inflammation affecting the whole respiratory tract. Obstruction is usually intermittent and reversible in asthma, but is progressive and irreversible in COPD. Asthma and COPD may overlap and converge, especially in older people [overlap syndrome-asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS)]. Although ACOS accounts approximately 15-25% of the obstructive airway diseases, is not well recognised because of the structure of clinical trials. COPD studies exclude asthma patients and asthma studies exclude COPD patients, respectively. It is crucial to define asthma, COPD and overlap syndrome (ACOS), as notable clinical entities, which they share common pathologic and functional features, but they are characterized from differences in lung function, acute exacerbations, quality of life, hospital impact and mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                14 September 2015
                : 10
                : 1951-1956
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital/I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan
                [4 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [5 ]Division of Thoracic Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [6 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [7 ]Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                [8 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan
                [9 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University and China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
                [10 ]Division of Chest Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
                [11 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan
                [12 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [13 ]Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ping-Hung Kuo, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, No 7, Chung-Shang South Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan, Tel +886 2 2312 3456 ext 65445, Fax +886 2 2358 2867, Email kph712@ 123456ntuh.gov.tw
                Article
                copd-10-1951
                10.2147/COPD.S88114
                4574850
                26392770
                © 2015 Wei et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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