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      Intestinal microbiota changes pre- and post-fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection among Iranian patients with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a greater risk for the recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) that is triggered by intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapeutic option for this complication. However, little is known about the impact of FMT on intestinal microbiota alterations in rCDI patients suffering from IBD. In this study, we aimed to investigate post-FMT intestinal microbiota alterations in Iranian rCDI patients with underlying IBD.

          Methods

          A total of 21 fecal samples were collected including 14 samples pre- and post-FMT and 7 samples from healthy donors. Microbial analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The pre-FMT profile and composition of the fecal microbiota were compared to the microbial changes of samples collected 28 days after FMT.

          Results and discussion

          Overall, the fecal microbiota profile of recipients was more similar to donor samples after the transplantation. We observed a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes post-FMT, compared to the pre-FMT microbial profile. Furthermore, there were remarkable differences between the microbial profile of pre-FMT, post-FMT, and healthy donor samples by PCoA analysis based on the ordination distance. This study demonstrates FMT as a safe and effective approach to restore the indigenous composition of the intestinal microbiota in rCDI patients and ultimately results in the treatment of concurrent IBD.

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          Most cited references47

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          Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body

          Reported values in the literature on the number of cells in the body differ by orders of magnitude and are very seldom supported by any measurements or calculations. Here, we integrate the most up-to-date information on the number of human and bacterial cells in the body. We estimate the total number of bacteria in the 70 kg "reference man" to be 3.8·1013. For human cells, we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count (≈90%) and revise past estimates to 3.0·1013 human cells. Our analysis also updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in the body is actually of the same order as the number of human cells, and their total mass is about 0.2 kg.
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            An Ordination of the Upland Forest Communities of Southern Wisconsin

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              The human microbiome project.

              A strategy to understand the microbial components of the human genetic and metabolic landscape and how they contribute to normal physiology and predisposition to disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                24 February 2023
                2023
                : 14
                : 1147945
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [2] 2Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [3] 3Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [4] 4Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                Author notes

                Edited by: George Grant, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Marcos Edgar Herkenhoff, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Felix Broecker, Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Switzerland

                ORCID: Ali Nabavi-Rad, orcid.org/0000-0001-7799-9404; Abbas Yadegar, orcid.org/0000-0002-2135-7581

                This article was submitted to Infectious Agents and Disease, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2023.1147945
                9998922
                36910213
                25530d09-a118-4dce-8713-6a22fe2907a2
                Copyright © 2023 Gholam-Mostafaei, Azimirad, Naseri, Nabavi-Rad, Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Shahrokh, Ebrahimi Daryani, Yadegar and Zali.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 19 January 2023
                : 08 February 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Equations: 1, References: 47, Pages: 11, Words: 6311
                Funding
                Funded by: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, doi 10.13039/501100005851;
                This work was supported by the Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (no. RIGLD 1061).
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                clostridioides difficile infection,fecal microbiota transplantation,recurrent cdi,inflammatory bowel disease,intestinal microbiota

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