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      A cluster randomised controlled trial of advice, exercise or multifactorial assessment to prevent falls and fractures in community-dwelling older adults: protocol for the prevention of falls injury trial (PreFIT)

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 1 , 6

      (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab)

      BMJ Open

      BMJ Publishing Group

      GERIATRIC MEDICINE, Falls prevention, Fracture, Exercise, PRIMARY CARE

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          Falls are the leading cause of accident-related mortality in older adults. Injurious falls are associated with functional decline, disability, healthcare utilisation and significant National Health Service (NHS)-related costs. The evidence base for multifactorial or exercise interventions reducing fractures in the general population is weak. This protocol describes a large-scale UK trial investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of alternative falls prevention interventions targeted at community dwelling older adults.

          Methods and analysis

          A three-arm, pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial, conducted within primary care in England, UK. Sixty-three general practices will be randomised to deliver one of three falls prevention interventions: (1) advice only; (2) advice with exercise; or (3) advice with multifactorial falls prevention (MFFP). We aim to recruit over 9000 community-dwelling adults aged 70 and above. Practices randomised to deliver advice will mail out advice booklets. Practices randomised to deliver ‘active’ interventions, either exercise or MFFP, send all trial participants the advice booklet and a screening survey to identify participants with a history of falling or balance problems. Onward referral to ‘active’ intervention will be based on falls risk determined from balance screen. The primary outcome is peripheral fracture; secondary outcomes include number with at least one fracture, falls, mortality, quality of life and health service resource use at 18 months, captured using self-report and routine healthcare activity data.

          Ethics and dissemination

          The study protocol has approval from the National Research Ethics Service (REC reference 10/H0401/36; Protocol V.3.1, 21/May/2013). User groups and patient representatives were consulted to inform trial design. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. A patient-friendly summary of trial findings will be published on the prevention of falls injury trial (PreFIT) website. This protocol adheres to the recommended SPIRIT Checklist. Amendments will be reported to relevant regulatory parties.

          Trial registration number

          ISRCTN 71002650; Pre-results.

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          Most cited references 20

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          EuroQol: the current state of play.

          The EuroQol Group first met in 1987 to test the feasibility of jointly developing a standardised non-disease-specific instrument for describing and valuing health-related quality of life. From the outset the Group has been multi-country, multi-centre, and multi-disciplinary. The EuroQol instrument is intended to complement other forms of quality of life measures, and it has been purposefully developed to generate a cardinal index of health, thus giving it considerable potential for use in economic evaluation. Considerable effort has been invested by the Group in the development and valuation aspects of health status measurement. Earlier work was reported upon in 1990; this paper is a second 'corporate' effort detailing subsequent developments. The concepts underlying the EuroQol framework are explored with particular reference to the generic nature of the instrument. The valuation task is reviewed and some evidence on the methodological requirements for measurement is presented. A number of special issues of considerable interest and concern to the Group are discussed: the modelling of data, the duration of health states and the problems surrounding the state 'dead'. An outline of some of the applications of the EuroQol instrument is presented and a brief commentary on the Group's ongoing programme of work concludes the paper.
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            Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community

            Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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              Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide.

              Without a complete published description of interventions, clinicians and patients cannot reliably implement interventions that are shown to be useful, and other researchers cannot replicate or build on research findings. The quality of description of interventions in publications, however, is remarkably poor. To improve the completeness of reporting, and ultimately the replicability, of interventions, an international group of experts and stakeholders developed the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. The process involved a literature review for relevant checklists and research, a Delphi survey of an international panel of experts to guide item selection, and a face to face panel meeting. The resultant 12 item TIDieR checklist (brief name, why, what (materials), what (procedure), who provided, how, where, when and how much, tailoring, modifications, how well (planned), how well (actual)) is an extension of the CONSORT 2010 statement (item 5) and the SPIRIT 2013 statement (item 11). While the emphasis of the checklist is on trials, the guidance is intended to apply across all evaluative study designs. This paper presents the TIDieR checklist and guide, with an explanation and elaboration for each item, and examples of good reporting. The TIDieR checklist and guide should improve the reporting of interventions and make it easier for authors to structure accounts of their interventions, reviewers and editors to assess the descriptions, and readers to use the information.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                18 January 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                [1 ]Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick , Coventry, UK
                [2 ]Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds , Leeds, UK
                [3 ]Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital , Exeter, UK
                [4 ]School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University , Glasgow, UK
                [5 ]Older Persons' Unit, Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas’ Hospital , London, UK
                [6 ]Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics Rheumatology & Musculoskeletal Sciences, Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford , Oxford, UK
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Professor Sarah E Lamb; sarah.lamb@ 123456ndorms.ox.ac.uk
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                Geriatric Medicine


                primary care, geriatric medicine, falls prevention, fracture, exercise


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