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      High Dialysate Calcium Concentration is Associated with Worsening Left Ventricular Function

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          Abstract

          Dialysate calcium concentration (d[Ca]) might have a cardiovascular impact in patients on haemodialysis (HD) since a higher d[Ca] determines better hemodynamic tolerability. We have assessed the influence of d[Ca] on global longitudinal strain (GLS) by two-dimensional echocardiography using speckle-tracking imaging before and in the last hour of HD. This is an observational crossover study using d[Ca] 1.75 mmol/L and 1.25 mmol/L. Ultrafiltration was the same between interventions; patients aged 44 ± 13 years (N = 19). The 1.75 mmol/L d[Ca] was associated with lighter drop of blood pressure. Post HD serum total calcium was higher with d[Ca] 1.75 than with 1.25 mmol/L (11.5 ± 0.8 vs. 9.1 ± 0.5 mg/dL, respectively, p < 0.01). In almost all segments strain values were significantly worse in the peak HD with 1.75 mmol/L d[Ca] than with 1.25 mmol/L d[Ca]. GLS decreased from −19.8 ± 3.7% at baseline to −17.3 ± 2.9% and −16.1 ± 2.6% with 1.25 d[Ca] and 1.75 d[Ca] mmol/L, respectively (p < 0.05 for both d[Ca] vs. baseline and 1.25 d[Ca] vs. 1.75 d[Ca] mmol/L). Factors associated with a worse GLS included transferrin, C-reactive protein, weight lost, and post dialysis serum total calcium. We concluded that d[Ca] of 1.75 mmol/L was associated with higher post dialysis serum calcium, which contributed to a worse ventricular performance. Whether this finding would lead to myocardial stunning needs further investigation.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial strain.

          Echocardiographic strain imaging, also known as deformation imaging, has been developed as a means to objectively quantify regional myocardial function. First introduced as post-processing of tissue Doppler imaging velocity converted to strain and strain rate, strain imaging has more recently also been derived from digital speckle tracking analysis. Strain imaging has been used to gain greater understanding into the pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia and infarction, primary diseases of the myocardium, and the effects of valvular disease on myocardial function, and to advance our understanding of diastolic function. Strain imaging has also been used to quantify abnormalities in the timing of mechanical activation for heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization pacing therapy. Further advances, such as 3-dimensional speckle tracking strain imaging, have emerged to provide even greater insight. Strain imaging has become established as a robust research tool and has great potential to play many roles in routine clinical practice to advance the care of the cardiovascular patient. This perspective reviews the physiology of myocardial strain, the technical features of strain imaging using tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, their strengths and weaknesses, and the state-of-the-art present and potential future clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Prognostic value of aortic stiffness and calcification for cardiovascular events and mortality in dialysis patients: outcome of the calcification outcome in renal disease (CORD) study.

            Radiographic calcification and arterial stiffness each individually are predictive of outcome in dialysis patients. However, it is unknown whether combined assessment of these intermediate endpoints also provides additional predictive value. Scoring of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) using plain lateral abdominal x-ray and measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were performed in a cohort of 1084 prevalent dialysis patients recruited from 47 European dialysis centers. During a follow-up of 2 years, 234 deaths and 91 nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events occurred. Compared with the lowest tertile of AAC, the risk of an event was increased by a factor 3.7 in patients with a score of 5 to 15 (middle tertile), and by a factor 8.6 in patients with scores of 16 to 24. Additionally, each 1-m/s increase in PWV was associated with a 15% higher risk. At higher AAC (scores ≥ 5), the effect of PWV was attenuated because of a negative PWV × AAC interaction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.895 and 0.865 for middle and upper AAC tertiles). After accounting for age, diabetes, and serum albumin, AAC and PWV remained independent predictors of outcome. AAC and central arterial stiffness are independent predictors of mortality and nonfatal CV events in dialysis patients. The risk associated with an increased PWV is less pronounced at higher levels of calcification. Assessment of AAC and PWV is feasible in a clinical setting and both may be used for an accurate CV risk estimation in this heterogeneous population.
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              Dialysis-induced regional left ventricular dysfunction is ameliorated by cooling the dialysate.

              Dialysis patients who develop cardiac failure have a poor prognosis. Recurrent subclinical myocardial ischemia is important in the genesis of heart failure in nondialysis patients. It has previously been demonstrated that subclinical ischemia occurs during hemodialysis; therefore, this study examined whether the improved stability of cool-temperature dialysis lessens this phenomenon. Ten patients who were prone to intradialytic hypotension entered a randomized, crossover study to compare the development of dialysis-induced left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) at dialysate temperatures of 37 and 35 degrees C. Serial echocardiography with quantitative analysis was used to assess ejection fraction and regional systolic LV function. BP and hemodynamic variables were measured using continuous pulse wave analysis. The severity of thermal symptoms was scored using a simple questionnaire. Forty-nine new RWMA developed in nine patients during hemodialysis with dialysate at 37 degrees C (HD(37)), compared with thirteen RWMA that developed in four patients during HD(35) (odds ratio 3.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 6.9). The majority of RWMA displayed improved function by 30 min after dialysis. Overall, regional systolic LV function was significantly more impaired during HD(37) (P < 0.001). BP was higher during HD(35), with fewer episodes of hypotension as a result of a higher peripheral resistance and no difference in stroke volume. The development of thermal symptoms was heterogeneous, with most patients tolerating HD(35) well. This study confirms previous findings of reversible LV RWMA that develop during hemodialysis. It also shows that this phenomenon can be ameliorated by reducing dialysate temperature, a simple intervention with no cost implications.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                rosilenemotta@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                20 February 2019
                20 February 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Nephrology Service, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, , Universidade de São Paulo, ; São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Heart Institute (InCor), , Universidade de São Paulo, ; São Paulo, Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0414 8221, GRID grid.412295.9, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), ; São Paulo, Brazil
                Article
                38887
                10.1038/s41598-019-38887-y
                6382760
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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