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      Protein misfolding, functional amyloid, and human disease.

      1 ,
      Annual review of biochemistry
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Peptides or proteins convert under some conditions from their soluble forms into highly ordered fibrillar aggregates. Such transitions can give rise to pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. In this review, we identify the diseases known to be associated with formation of fibrillar aggregates and the specific peptides and proteins involved in each case. We describe, in addition, that living organisms can take advantage of the inherent ability of proteins to form such structures to generate novel and diverse biological functions. We review recent advances toward the elucidation of the structures of amyloid fibrils and the mechanisms of their formation at a molecular level. Finally, we discuss the relative importance of the common main-chain and side-chain interactions in determining the propensities of proteins to aggregate and describe some of the evidence that the oligomeric fibril precursors are the primary origins of pathological behavior.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Annu Rev Biochem
          Annual review of biochemistry
          Annual Reviews
          0066-4154
          0066-4154
          2006
          : 75
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, I-50134 Firenze, Italy. fabrizio.chiti@unifi.it
          Article
          10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.101304.123901
          16756495
          255ae5ef-bad2-4f5f-a173-534211331c76
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