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      Electromagnetic Field Therapy: A Rehabilitative Perspective in the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain – A Systematic Review

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          Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) provide a non-invasive, safe, and easy method to treat pain with respect to musculoskeletal diseases. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the use of electromagnetic therapy in the rehabilitation field by investigating the efficacy in acute and chronic pain in the musculoskeletal disorders. A database search was conducted using the following resources: PubMed, Cochrane, PEDro, SCOPUS, and WoS. The following MESH terms were used: [Electromagnetic field AND/OR Rehabilitation], [Electromagnetic field AND/OR Pain], [Pulsed Magnetic field AND/OR Rehabilitation] and [Pulsed Magnetic field AND/OR Pain], [Pulsed Electromagnetic field AND/OR Rehabilitation] and [Pulsed Electromagnetic field AND/OR Pain], per the guidelines of the PRISMA statement. Articles published between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2018 were included as assessment of musculoskeletal pain conditions, randomized clinical trial including crossover and prospective design studies, full English text available, population age > 18 years; instead were excluded neurological randomized clinical trials, transcranial magnetic stimulation application, neuropathic pain, animal/in vitro studies, and articles without English abstract or English full text. Three independent investigators (AMC, NG, and LP) retrieved all the information. Twenty-one RTC (N=21) were considered for the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results showed as pulsed magnetic fields at low intensity and frequency (from 1 Hz up to 100 Hz) are commonly used with efficacy in resolving musculoskeletal pain. EMFs therapy is a well tolerated, effective with no negative side effects, which can be integrated with rehabilitation for the treatment of chronic and acute pain in musculoskeletal diseases, but further studies are needed to examine the use of more standardized protocols.

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              Repair of the rotator cuff. End-result study of factors influencing reconstruction.

              In fifty patients who had fifty tears of the rotator cuff that had been repaired, we correlated the preoperative findings by history, physical examination, and radiography with the operative findings, the difficulty of the repair, and the results after an average follow-up of 3.5 years. The results, which were rated on the basis of pain, function, range of motion, strength, and satisfaction of the patient, were satisfactory in 84 per cent and unsatisfactory in 16 per cent. The correlations of the preoperative findings with the results showed that pain and functional impairment, the primary indications for repair, were significantly relieved. The longer the duration of pain was preoperatively, the larger the cuff tear and the more difficult the repair were. The strength of abduction and of external rotation before repair was of prognostic value: the greater the weakness, the poorer the result. The poorest results were in patients with strength ratings of grade 3 or less. Limitation of active motion preoperatively was also of prognostic value: in patients who were unable to abduct the shoulder beyond 100 degrees preoperatively, there was an increased risk of a poor result. An acromiohumeral distance of seven millimeters or less (measured on the anteroposterior radiograph) suggested a larger tear and the likelihood that after repair there would be less strength in flexion, less active motion, and lower scores. Single or double-contrast arthrography was not consistently accurate in estimating the size of the tear. After so-called watertight repair and anterior acromioplasty, successful results can be anticipated in a high percentage of patients.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                12 June 2020
                : 13
                : 1385-1400
                [1 ]Department of Medical Oral Sciences and Biotechnology (DiSmob), Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit, G. D’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara , Chieti, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Study of Urbino Carlo Bo , Urbino, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Teresa Paolucci G. D’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara , Chieti, Italy Email teresapaolucci@hotmail.com
                © 2020 Paolucci et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 72, Pages: 16


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