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      Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis.

      Psychological Bulletin
      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Psychological Bulletin
          Psychological Bulletin
          American Psychological Association (APA)
          1939-1455
          0033-2909
          1994
          1994
          : 116
          : 3
          : 429-456
          Article
          10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.429
          7809307
          255decf8-4ddc-4cd1-bf6a-02216d72a18e
          © 1994
          History

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