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      The Mediating Effects of Affect on Associations between Impulsivity or Resilience and Internet Gaming Disorder

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          Abstract

          Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a new disease proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and has been studied extensively in relation to depression and impulsivity. The relationship between resilience and disease has been found in a variety of addictive disorders, but studies on IGD are lacking. In this study, 71 IGD patients and 78 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Impulsivity, resilience, affects, and the degree of internet game addiction were measured using formal tools. The measured values were analyzed by mediation analysis to evaluate the mediating role of affects on resilience and impulsivity related to IGD symptoms. The IGD group showed higher impulsivity, lower resilience, lower positive affect, and higher negative affect than the HC group. The mediation analysis showed that a positive affect was a mediator between impulsivity and the severity of addiction in both groups. Negative affect mediated impulsivity/resilience and the severity of addiction only in the IGD group. Although the results of this study are based on a narrow category of subjects, who are young male adults around 25 years of age, the results suggest that positive affect can be strengthened to prevent the IGD illness, and that illness symptoms may be alleviated by reducing negative affect.

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          Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

          Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
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            Prevalence of Internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a state-wide representative sample.

            Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included as a condition for further study in Section 3 of the DSM-5. Nine criteria were proposed with a threshold of five or more criteria recommended for diagnosis. The aims of this study were to assess how the specific criteria contribute to diagnosis and to estimate prevalence rates of IGD based on DSM-5 recommendations.
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              Innovations and changes in the ICD-11 classification of mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders

              Following approval of the ICD-11 by the World Health Assembly in May 2019, World Health Organization (WHO) member states will transition from the ICD-10 to the ICD-11, with reporting of health statistics based on the new system to begin on January 1, 2022. The WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse will publish Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG) for ICD-11 Mental, Behavioural and Neurodevelopmental Disorders following ICD-11's approval. The development of the ICD-11 CDDG over the past decade, based on the principles of clinical utility and global applicability, has been the most broadly international, multilingual, multidisciplinary and participative revision process ever implemented for a classification of mental disorders. Innovations in the ICD-11 include the provision of consistent and systematically characterized information, the adoption of a lifespan approach, and culture-related guidance for each disorder. Dimensional approaches have been incorporated into the classification, particularly for personality disorders and primary psychotic disorders, in ways that are consistent with current evidence, are more compatible with recovery-based approaches, eliminate artificial comorbidity, and more effectively capture changes over time. Here we describe major changes to the structure of the ICD-11 classification of mental disorders as compared to the ICD-10, and the development of two new ICD-11 chapters relevant to mental health practice. We illustrate a set of new categories that have been added to the ICD-11 and present the rationale for their inclusion. Finally, we provide a description of the important changes that have been made in each ICD-11 disorder grouping. This information is intended to be useful for both clinicians and researchers in orienting themselves to the ICD-11 and in preparing for implementation in their own professional contexts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                25 July 2019
                August 2019
                : 8
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul 06591, Korea
                [5 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: choijs73@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                jcm-08-01102
                10.3390/jcm8081102
                6723401
                31349640
                25605f7f-e79e-46b4-a892-9a3700b40872
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                internet gaming disorder,mediation analysis,affect,impulsivity,resilience

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