Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a new disease proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and has been studied extensively in relation to depression and impulsivity. The relationship between resilience and disease has been found in a variety of addictive disorders, but studies on IGD are lacking. In this study, 71 IGD patients and 78 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Impulsivity, resilience, affects, and the degree of internet game addiction were measured using formal tools. The measured values were analyzed by mediation analysis to evaluate the mediating role of affects on resilience and impulsivity related to IGD symptoms. The IGD group showed higher impulsivity, lower resilience, lower positive affect, and higher negative affect than the HC group. The mediation analysis showed that a positive affect was a mediator between impulsivity and the severity of addiction in both groups. Negative affect mediated impulsivity/resilience and the severity of addiction only in the IGD group. Although the results of this study are based on a narrow category of subjects, who are young male adults around 25 years of age, the results suggest that positive affect can be strengthened to prevent the IGD illness, and that illness symptoms may be alleviated by reducing negative affect.