Gallstone disease was detected in 28% of 119 patients on regular dialysis treatment. The disease was silent in 82% of the patients. Stones were radiolucent in 88% of the cases, radioopaque in 8% and mixed in 4%. Among 49 variables considered, increasing age was the only variable that correlated significantly with increasing prevalence of gallstone disease. Since no relationships were found between gallstones and age or modes of dialysis, it is conceivable that some mechanism(s) linked with the preexisting chronic nephropathy might have been involved in the development of cholelithiasis. End-stage renal disease could be another so far unrecognized risk factor for cholelithiasis.