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      Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic-Related Risk Factors of Gastric Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) has shown a growth growing trend worldwide, but its clinicopathological features and prognostic-related risk factors have not been systematically studied. This systematic review was devoted to this.

          Method

          PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were retrieved, and retrospective cohort studies comparing clinicopathological features and related risk factors in SRCC patients were included.

          Results

          In SRCC patient population, males were more than females (male, OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.60); N3 patients were more than N0-2 patients (N0-2, OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.98-5.15); M1 patients were more than M0 patients (M0, OR = 3.30, 95% CI: 1.88-5.80); patients with tumor > 5 cm were more than those with tumor (≤5 cm, OR = 7.36, 95% CI: 1.33-40.60). Patients with age < 60 years (age ≥ 60 years, OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), lymphatic vessel invasion (no, OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.45), T2 (T1, OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28) and T4 (T1, OR = 2.55, 95% CI: 2.30-2.81) stages, and N1 (N0, OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.08-2.38), N2 (N0, OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.12-3.36), and N3 (N0, OR = 3.45, 95% CI: 1.58-5.32) stages had higher hazard ratio (HR).

          Conclusion

          SRCC may occur frequently in male. Age, lymphatic vessel invasion, TN, and M stage may be risk factors for poor prognoses of SRCC patients.

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          Most cited references52

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          Gastric cancer

          Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer death globally. Risk factors for the condition include Helicobacter pylori infection, age, high salt intake, and diets low in fruit and vegetables. Gastric cancer is diagnosed histologically after endoscopic biopsy and staged using CT, endoscopic ultrasound, PET, and laparoscopy. It is a molecularly and phenotypically highly heterogeneous disease. The main treatment for early gastric cancer is endoscopic resection. Non-early operable gastric cancer is treated with surgery, which should include D2 lymphadenectomy (including lymph node stations in the perigastric mesentery and along the celiac arterial branches). Perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with stage 1B or higher cancers. Advanced gastric cancer is treated with sequential lines of chemotherapy, starting with a platinum and fluoropyrimidine doublet in the first line; median survival is less than 1 year. Targeted therapies licensed to treat gastric cancer include trastuzumab (HER2-positive patients first line), ramucirumab (anti-angiogenic second line), and nivolumab or pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1 third line).
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            Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer.

            A regimen of epirubicin, cisplatin, and infused fluorouracil (ECF) improves survival among patients with incurable locally advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. We assessed whether the addition of a perioperative regimen of ECF to surgery improves outcomes among patients with potentially curable gastric cancer. We randomly assigned patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, esophagogastric junction, or lower esophagus to either perioperative chemotherapy and surgery (250 patients) or surgery alone (253 patients). Chemotherapy consisted of three preoperative and three postoperative cycles of intravenous epirubicin (50 mg per square meter of body-surface area) and cisplatin (60 mg per square meter) on day 1, and a continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil (200 mg per square meter per day) for 21 days. The primary end point was overall survival. ECF-related adverse effects were similar to those previously reported among patients with advanced gastric cancer. Rates of postoperative complications were similar in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and the surgery group (46 percent and 45 percent, respectively), as were the numbers of deaths within 30 days after surgery. The resected tumors were significantly smaller and less advanced in the perioperative-chemotherapy group. With a median follow-up of four years, 149 patients in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and 170 in the surgery group had died. As compared with the surgery group, the perioperative-chemotherapy group had a higher likelihood of overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.93; P=0.009; five-year survival rate, 36 percent vs. 23 percent) and of progression-free survival (hazard ratio for progression, 0.66; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001). In patients with operable gastric or lower esophageal adenocarcinomas, a perioperative regimen of ECF decreased tumor size and stage and significantly improved progression-free and overall survival. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN93793971 [controlled-trials.com].). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Burden of Gastric Cancer

              Gastric cancer is a global health problem, with more than 1 million people newly diagnosed with gastric cancer worldwide each year. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence and mortality over the past 5 decades, gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Knowledge of global as well as regional epidemiology and risk factors for gastric cancer is essential for the practicing gastroenterologist to make personalized decisions about risk stratification, screening, and prevention. In this article, we review the epidemiology of gastric cancer as well as screening and prevention efforts to reduce global morbidity and mortality from gastric cancer. First, we discuss the descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer, including its incidence, mortality, survival, and secular trends. We combine a synthesis of published studies with an analysis of data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer GLOBOCAN project to describe the global burden of gastric cancer and data from the US Cancer Statistics registry to discuss the change in incidence of gastric cancer in the United States. Next, we summarize current knowledge of risk factors for gastric cancer. Finally, we discuss prevention strategies and screening efforts for gastric cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comput Math Methods Med
                Comput Math Methods Med
                cmmm
                Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
                Hindawi
                1748-670X
                1748-6718
                2022
                5 August 2022
                : 2022
                : 3473445
                Affiliations
                1Department of Oncology, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China
                2Thoracic Surgery Department, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China
                3Department of Oncology, Tengzhou Central People's Hospital, Tengzhou, Shandong 277500, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Tao Huang

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1568-7082
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5674-6712
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3246-9885
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7415-5214
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6932-3017
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1004-6227
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4646-2641
                Article
                10.1155/2022/3473445
                9410921
                36035278
                2564e5c6-fdc9-4250-bba1-979c040403f3
                Copyright © 2022 Ying Guo et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 25 May 2022
                : 6 July 2022
                : 17 July 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: Medical Science Research Project of Hebei Provincial Health Commission
                Award ID: 20180255
                Categories
                Review Article

                Applied mathematics
                Applied mathematics

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