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      Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species promote production of proinflammatory cytokines and are elevated in TNFR1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS)

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          ROS generated by mitochondrial respiration are needed for optimal proinflammatory cytokine production in healthy cells, and are elevated in cells from patients with an autoinflammatory disorder.


          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an established role in inflammation and host defense, as they kill intracellular bacteria and have been shown to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we find that ROS generated by mitochondrial respiration are important for normal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven production of several proinflammatory cytokines and for the enhanced responsiveness to LPS seen in cells from patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), an autoinflammatory disorder caused by missense mutations in the type 1 TNF receptor (TNFR1). We find elevated baseline ROS in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human immune cells harboring TRAPS-associated TNFR1 mutations. A variety of antioxidants dampen LPS-induced MAPK phosphorylation and inflammatory cytokine production. However, gp91 phox and p22 phox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits are dispensable for inflammatory cytokine production, indicating that NADPH oxidases are not the source of proinflammatory ROS. TNFR1 mutant cells exhibit altered mitochondrial function with enhanced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial ROS generation, and pharmacological blockade of mitochondrial ROS efficiently reduces inflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation in cells from TRAPS patients and healthy controls. These findings suggest that mitochondrial ROS may be a novel therapeutic target for TRAPS and other inflammatory diseases.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs.

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            Reactive oxygen species promote TNFalpha-induced death and sustained JNK activation by inhibiting MAP kinase phosphatases.

            TNFalpha is a pleiotropic cytokine that induces either cell proliferation or cell death. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation increases susceptibility to TNFalpha-induced death, concurrent with sustained JNK activation, an important contributor to the death response. Sustained JNK activation in NF-kappaB-deficient cells was suggested to depend on reactive oxygen species (ROS), but how ROS affect JNK activation was unclear. We now show that TNFalpha-induced ROS, whose accumulation is suppressed by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cause oxidation and inhibition of JNK-inactivating phosphatases by converting their catalytic cysteine to sulfenic acid. This results in sustained JNK activation, which is required for cytochrome c release and caspase 3 cleavage, as well as necrotic cell death. Treatment of cells or experimental animals with an antioxidant prevents H(2)O(2) accumulation, JNK phosphatase oxidation, sustained JNK activity, and both forms of cell death. Antioxidant treatment also prevents TNFalpha-mediated fulminant liver failure without affecting liver regeneration.
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              TLR activation of the transcription factor XBP1 regulates innate immune responses in macrophages.

              Sensors of pathogens, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), detect microbes to activate transcriptional programs that orchestrate adaptive responses to specific insults. Here we report that TLR4 and TLR2 specifically activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor kinase IRE1alpha and its downstream target, the transcription factor XBP1. Previously described ER-stress target genes of XBP1 were not induced by TLR signaling. Instead, TLR-activated XBP1 was required for optimal and sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Consistent with that finding, activation of IRE1alpha by ER stress acted in synergy with TLR activation for cytokine production. Moreover, XBP1 deficiency resulted in a much greater bacterial burden in mice infected with the TLR2-activating human intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. Our findings identify an unsuspected critical function for XBP1 in mammalian host defenses.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                14 March 2011
                : 208
                : 3
                : 519-533
                [1 ]Immunoregulation Section, Autoimmunity Branch , and [2 ]Inflammatory Biology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases , and [3 ]Laboratory of Mitochondrial Biology in Cardiometabolic Syndromes, Translational Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
                [4 ]Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Richard M. Siegel: rsiegel@ 123456nih.gov

                A. Simon’s present address is Dept. of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University, Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.


                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).




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