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      Proteasomes and Several Aspects of Their Heterogeneity Relevant to Cancer

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          The life of every organism is dependent on the fine-tuned mechanisms of protein synthesis and breakdown. The degradation of most intracellular proteins is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Proteasomes are central elements of the UPS and represent large multisubunit protein complexes directly responsible for the protein degradation. Accumulating data indicate that there is an intriguing diversity of cellular proteasomes. Different proteasome forms, containing different subunits and attached regulators have been described. In addition, proteasomes specific for a particular tissue were identified. Cancer cells are highly dependent on the proper functioning of the UPS in general, and proteasomes in particular. At the same time, the information regarding the role of different proteasome forms in cancer is limited. This review describes the functional and structural heterogeneity of proteasomes, their association with cancer as well as several established and novel proteasome-directed therapeutic strategies.

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          Most cited references 299

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          Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0.

          The Clustal W and Clustal X multiple sequence alignment programs have been completely rewritten in C++. This will facilitate the further development of the alignment algorithms in the future and has allowed proper porting of the programs to the latest versions of Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The programs can be run on-line from the EBI web server: The source code and executables for Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers are available from the EBI ftp site
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            The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway: destruction for the sake of construction.

            Between the 1960s and 1980s, most life scientists focused their attention on studies of nucleic acids and the translation of the coded information. Protein degradation was a neglected area, considered to be a nonspecific, dead-end process. Although it was known that proteins do turn over, the large extent and high specificity of the process, whereby distinct proteins have half-lives that range from a few minutes to several days, was not appreciated. The discovery of the lysosome by Christian de Duve did not significantly change this view, because it became clear that this organelle is involved mostly in the degradation of extracellular proteins, and their proteases cannot be substrate specific. The discovery of the complex cascade of the ubiquitin pathway revolutionized the field. It is clear now that degradation of cellular proteins is a highly complex, temporally controlled, and tightly regulated process that plays major roles in a variety of basic pathways during cell life and death as well as in health and disease. With the multitude of substrates targeted and the myriad processes involved, it is not surprising that aberrations in the pathway are implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, certain malignancies, and neurodegeneration among them. Degradation of a protein via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway involves two successive steps: 1) conjugation of multiple ubiquitin moieties to the substrate and 2) degradation of the tagged protein by the downstream 26S proteasome complex. Despite intensive research, the unknown still exceeds what we currently know on intracellular protein degradation, and major key questions have remained unsolved. Among these are the modes of specific and timed recognition for the degradation of the many substrates and the mechanisms that underlie aberrations in the system that lead to pathogenesis of diseases.
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              Recognition and processing of ubiquitin-protein conjugates by the proteasome.

               Daniel Finley (2008)
              The proteasome is an intricate molecular machine, which serves to degrade proteins following their conjugation to ubiquitin. Substrates dock onto the proteasome at its 19-subunit regulatory particle via a diverse set of ubiquitin receptors and are then translocated into an internal chamber within the 28-subunit proteolytic core particle (CP), where they are hydrolyzed. Substrate is threaded into the CP through a narrow gated channel, and thus translocation requires unfolding of the substrate. Six distinct ATPases in the regulatory particle appear to form a ring complex and to drive unfolding as well as translocation. ATP-dependent, degradation-coupled deubiquitination of the substrate is required both for efficient substrate degradation and for preventing the degradation of the ubiquitin tag. However, the proteasome also contains deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that can remove ubiquitin before substrate degradation initiates, thus allowing some substrates to dissociate from the proteasome and escape degradation. Here we examine the key elements of this molecular machine and how they cooperate in the processing of proteolytic substrates.

                Author and article information

                Front Oncol
                Front Oncol
                Front. Oncol.
                Frontiers in Oncology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                13 August 2019
                : 9
                Laboratory of Regulation of Intracellular Proteolysis, W.A. Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology RAS , Moscow, Russia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Luisa Lanfrancone, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia s.r.l., Italy

                Reviewed by: Aldrin V. Gomes, University of California, Davis, United States; Nico P. Dantuma, Karolinska Institute, Sweden

                *Correspondence: Alexey V. Morozov runkel@

                This article was submitted to Molecular and Cellular Oncology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Oncology

                Copyright © 2019 Morozov and Karpov.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 299, Pages: 21, Words: 18919
                Funded by: Russian Science Foundation 10.13039/501100006769
                Award ID: 18-74-10095


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