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A New Approach to Separate Haemodynamic Signals for Brain-Computer Interface Using Independent Component Analysis and Least Squares

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      Abstract

      Brain-computer interface (BCI) is one technology that allows a user to communicate with external devices through detecting brain activity. As a promising noninvasive technique, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has recently earned increasing attention in BCI studies. However, in practice fNIRS measurements can suffer from significant physiological interference, for example, arising from cardiac contraction, breathing, and blood pressure fluctuations, thereby severely limiting the utility of the method. Here, we apply the multidistance fNIRS method, with short-distance and long-distance optode pairs, and we propose the combination of independent component analysis (ICA) and least squares (LS) with the fNIRS recordings to reduce the interference. The short-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the virtual channel and the long-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the measurement channel. Least squares is used to optimize the reconstruction value for brain activity signal. Monte Carlo simulations of photon propagation through a five-layered slab model of a human adult head were implemented to evaluate our methodology. The results demonstrate that the ICA method can separate the brain signal and interference; the further application of least squares can significantly recover haemodynamic signals contaminated by physiological interference from the fNIRS-evoked brain activity data.

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      Most cited references 29

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      MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues

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        Spontaneous low frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in human adults.

         H Obrig,  M Neufang,  R Wenzel (2000)
        We investigated slow spontaneous oscillations in cerebral oxygenation in the human adult's visual cortex. The rationale was (1) to demonstrate their detectability by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); (2) to analyze the spectral power of as well as the phase relationship between the different NIRS parameters (oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and cytochrome-oxidase; oxy-Hb/deoxy-Hb/Cyt-ox). Also (3) influences of functional stimulation and hypercapnia on power and phase shifts were investigated. The results show that-in line with the literature-low frequency oscillations (LFO) centred around 0.1 s(-1) and even slower oscillations at about 0.04 s(-1) (very low frequency, VLFO) can be distinguished. Their respective power differs between oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb, and Cyt-ox. Either frequency (LFO and VLFO) is altered in magnitude by functional stimulation of the cortical area examined. Also we find a change of the phase shift between the vascular parameters (oxy-Hb, tot-Hb) and the metabolic parameter (Cyt-ox) evoked by the stimulation. It is shown that hypercapnia attenuates the LFO in oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb. (1) spontaneous vascular and metabolic LFO and VLFO can be reproducibly detected by NIRS in the human adult. (2) Their spectral characteristics and their response to hypercapnia are in line with those described in exposed cortex (for review see (Hudetz et al., 1998)) and correspond to findings with transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) (Diehl et al., 1995) and fMRI (Biswal et al., 1997). (3) The magnitude of and phase relation between NIRS-parameters at the LFO may allow for a local noninvasive assessment of autoregulatory mechanisms in the adult brain. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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          Performance comparison of several published tissue near-infrared spectroscopy algorithms.

          We have collected multiwavelength near-infrared (NIR) attenuation spectra on human forearm muscle, the adult rat head, and newborn piglet head to compare the changes in chromophore concentration derived from these data using published algorithms from four groups. We find differences between the results from the algorithms on each data set, particularly in their estimation of cytochrome oxidase (cyt-aa3) redox changes. We also find some differences when applying the same algorithm to the three data sets, suggesting possible difficulties in transferring algorithms between different physiological systems (e.g., Kurth, C. D., Steven, J. M., Benaron, D., and Chance, B. (1993) J. Clin. Monit. 9, 163-170). We have also compared the algorithms using simulated data generated using measured hemoglobin absorption spectra and a diffusion model for light transport in tissue. We find that while the algorithms from three groups are in broad agreement, that published by Piantadosi (Piantadosi, C. A. (1993) Methods Toxicol. 2, 107-126) produces significantly different results for cyt-aa3 and HbO2. Either the hemoglobin spectra used to produce the simulated data are inaccurate or the modeling is incorrect, or this algorithm is erroneous.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Journal of Spectroscopy
            Journal of Spectroscopy
            Hindawi Limited
            2314-4920
            2314-4939
            2013
            2013
            : 2013
            :
            : 1-9
            10.1155/2013/950302
            © 2013

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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