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      The Recent Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in the United States Based on Bone Mineral Density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine : RECENT US PREVALENCE OF OSTEOPOROSIS AND LOW BONE MASS

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          Abstract

          The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the noninstitutionalized population aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were more than 99 million adults aged 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010, 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low bone mass. We estimated that 7.7 million non-Hispanic white, 0.5 million non-Hispanic black, and 0.6 million Mexican American adults had osteoporosis, and another 33.8, 2.9, and 2.0 million had low bone mass, respectively. When combined, osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine affected an estimated 53.6 million older US adults in 2010. Although most of the individuals with osteoporosis or low bone mass were non-Hispanic white women, a substantial number of men and women from other racial/ethnic groups also had osteoporotic BMD or low bone mass. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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          Most cited references 28

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          A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis.

          In 1994, the World Health Organization published diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis. Since then, many new technologies have been developed for the measurement of bone mineral at multiple skeletal sites. The information provided by each assessment will describe the clinical characteristics, fracture risk and epidemiology of osteoporosis differently. Against this background, there is a need for a reference standard for describing osteoporosis. In the absence of a true gold standard, this paper proposes that the reference standard should be based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement made at the femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This site has been the most extensively validated, and provides a gradient of fracture risk as high as or higher than that of many other techniques. The recommended reference range is the NHANES III reference database for femoral neck measurements in women aged 20-29 years. A similar cut-off value for femoral neck BMD that is used to define osteoporosis in women can be used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in men - namely, a value for BMD 2.5 SD or more below the average for young adult women. The adoption of DXA as a reference standard provides a platform on which the performance characteristics of less well established and new methodologies can be compared.
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            European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

            Summary Guidance is provided in a European setting on the assessment and treatment of postmenopausal women with or at risk from osteoporosis. Introduction The European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Bone disease (subsequently the International Osteoporosis Foundation) published guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in 1997. This manuscript updates these in a European setting. Methods The following areas are reviewed: the role of bone mineral density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk; general and pharmacological management of osteoporosis; monitoring of treatment; assessment of fracture risk; case finding strategies; investigation of patients; health economics of treatment. Results and conclusions A platform is provided on which specific guidelines can be developed for national use.
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              Prevalent vertebral deformities predict hip fractures and new vertebral deformities but not wrist fractures. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.

              Although vertebral deformities are known to predict future vertebral deformities, little is known about their ability to predict other osteoporotic fractures. We examined the association between prevalent vertebral deformities and incident osteoporotic fractures in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a prospective study of 9704 women aged 65 years and older. Prevalent vertebral deformities were determined morphometrically from spinal radiographs at baseline and incident deformities from repeat spinal radiographs after a mean of 3.7 years. Appendicular fractures were collected by postcard every 4 months for a mean of 8.3 years. During follow-up, 389 women with new vertebral deformities, 464 with hip fractures, and 574 with wrist fractures were identified. Prevalent vertebral deformities were associated with a 5-fold increased risk (relative risk 5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4, 6.6) of sustaining a further vertebral deformity; the risk increased dramatically with both the number and severity of the prevalent deformities. Similarly, the risks of hip and any nonvertebral fractures were increased with baseline prevalent deformity, with relative risks of 2.8 (95% CI 2.3, 3.4) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.7, 2.1), respectively. Risk increased with number and severity of deformities. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age and calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD). Although there was a small increased risk of wrist fracture, this was not significant after adjusting for age and BMD. In conclusion, the presence of prevalent morphometrically defined vertebral deformities predicts future vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, including hip but not wrist fractures. Spinal radiographs identifying prevalent vertebral deformities may be a useful additional measurement to classify further a woman's risk of future fracture.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
                J Bone Miner Res
                Wiley
                08840431
                November 2014
                November 2014
                October 20 2014
                : 29
                : 11
                : 2520-2526
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology; University of Alabama at Birmingham; Birmingham AL USA
                [2 ]National Center for Health Statistics; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Hyattsville MD USA
                [3 ]Division of Clinical Immunology & Rheumatology; University of Alabama at Birmingham; Birmingham AL USA
                [4 ]National Osteoporosis Foundation; Washington DC USA
                [5 ]Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging; Tufts University; Boston MA USA
                Article
                10.1002/jbmr.2269
                24771492
                © 2014

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jbmr.2269

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