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      Ultrasound-Guided Multilevel Thoracic Paravertebral Block and Its Efficacy for Surgical Anesthesia During Primary Breast Cancer Surgery

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB), in conjunction with intravenous sedation, is reported to provide surgical anesthesia for primary breast cancer surgery (PBCS). Although ultrasound-guided (USG) TPVB has been described, there are no reports of USG multilevel TPVB for surgical anesthesia during PBCS. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine the feasibility of performing USG multilevel TPVB, at the T1–T6 vertebral levels (6m-TPVB), and to evaluate its efficacy in providing surgical anesthesia for PBCS.

          Patients and Methods

          Twenty-five female patients undergoing PBCS received an USG 6m-TPVB for surgical anesthesia. Four milliliters of ropivacaine 0.5% (with epinephrine 1:200,000) was injected at each vertebral level. Dexmedetomidine infusion (0.1–0.5 µg.kg −1.h −1) was used for conscious sedation. Success of the block, for surgical anesthesia, was defined as being able to complete the PBCS without having to resort to rescue analgesia or convert to GA.

          Results

          The USG 6m-TPVB was successfully performed on all 25 patients but it was effective as the sole anesthetic in only 20% (5/25) of patients. The remaining 80% (20/25) reported pain during separation of the breast from the pectoralis major muscle and its fascia. Surgery was successfully completed using small doses of intravenous ketamine (mean total dose, 38.0±20.5 mg) as supplementary analgesia.

          Conclusion

          USG 6m-TPVB is technically feasible but does not consistently provide complete surgical anesthesia for PBCS that involves surgical dissection on the pectoralis major muscle and its fascia. Our data suggest that the pectoral nerves, which are not affected by a 6m-TPVB, are involved with afferent nociception.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Somatic paravertebral nerve blockade. Incidence of failed block and complications.

          The failure rate and complications following thoracic and lumbar paravertebral blocks performed in 620 adults and 42 children were recorded. The technique failure rate in adults was 6.1%. No failures occurred in children. The complications recorded were: inadvertent vascular puncture (6.8%); hypotension (4.0%); haematoma (2.4%); pain at site of skin puncture (1.3%); signs of epidural or intrathecal spread (1.0%); pleural puncture (0.8%); pneumothorax (0.5%). No complications were noted in the children. The use of a bilateral paravertebral technique was found approximately to double the likelihood of inadvertent vascular puncture (9% vs. 5%) and to cause an eight-fold increase in pleural puncture and pneumothorax (3% vs. 0.4%), when compared with unilateral blocks. The incidence of other complications was similar between bilateral and unilateral blocks.
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            Ultrasound-guided multilevel paravertebral blocks and total intravenous anesthesia improve the quality of recovery after ambulatory breast tumor resection.

            Regional anesthesia improves postoperative analgesia and enhances quality of recovery (QoR) after ambulatory surgery. This randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial examines the effects of multilevel ultrasound-guided paravertebral blocks (PVBs) and total intravenous anesthesia on QoR after ambulatory breast tumor resection. Sixty-six women were randomized to standardized general anesthesia (control group) or PVBs and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (PVB group). The PVB group received T1-T5 PVBs with 5 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine per level, whereas the control group received sham subcutaneous injections. Postoperative QoR was designated as the primary outcome. The 29-item ambulatory QoR tool was administered in the preadmission clinic, before discharge, and on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7. Secondary outcomes included block success, pain scores, intra- and postoperative morphine consumption, time to rescue analgesia, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and hospital discharge time. Data from sixty-four patients were analyzed. The PVB group had higher QoR scores than control group upon discharge (146 vs. 131; P < 0.0001) and on postoperative day 2 (145 vs. 135; P = 0.013); improvements beyond postoperative day 2 lacked statistical significance. None of the PVB group patients required conversion to inhalation gas-based general anesthesia or experienced block-related complications. PVB group patients had improved pain scores on postanesthesia care unit admission and discharge, hospital discharge, and postoperative day 2; their intraoperative morphine consumption, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and discharge time were also reduced. Combining multilevel PVBs with total intravenous anesthesia provides reliable anesthesia, improves postoperative analgesia, enhances QoR, and expedites discharge compared with inhalational gas- and opioid-based general anesthesia for ambulatory breast tumor resection.
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              Perioperative Breast Analgesia: A Qualitative Review of Anatomy and Regional Techniques.

              Breast surgery is exceedingly common and may result in significant acute as well as chronic pain. Numerous options exist for the control of perioperative breast pain, including several newly described regional anesthesia techniques, but anesthesiologists have an insufficient understanding of the anatomy of the breast, the anatomic structures disrupted by the various breast surgeries, and the theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of the various analgesic options. In this article, we review the anatomy of the breast, common breast surgeries and their potential anatomic sources of pain, and analgesic techniques for managing perioperative pain. We performed a systematic review of the evidence for these analgesic techniques, including intercostal block, epidural administration, paravertebral block, brachial plexus block, and novel peripheral nerve blocks.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                09 July 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 1713-1723
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital , Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Manoj K Karmakar Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital , Room 0421D, 4/F, Main Clinical Block and Trauma Centre, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of ChinaTel +852 3505-2735Fax +852 3505-2422 Email karmakar@cuhk.edu.hk
                Article
                246406
                10.2147/JPR.S246406
                7367918
                © 2020 Pangthipampai et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funded by: the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital
                This research work was locally funded by the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, SAR.
                Categories
                Original Research

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