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      Lyssavirus in Japanese Pipistrelle, Taiwan

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          Abstract

          A putative new lyssavirus was found in 2 Japanese pipistrelles ( Pipistrellus abramus) in Taiwan in 2016 and 2017. The concatenated coding regions of the virus showed 62.9%–75.1% nucleotide identities to the other 16 species of lyssavirus, suggesting that it may be representative of a new species of this virus.

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          Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

          A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.
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            Cryptic diversity in European bats.

            Different species of bat can be morphologically very similar. In order to estimate the amount of cryptic diversity among European bats we screened the intra- and interspecific genetic variation in 26 European vespertilionid bat species. We sequenced the DNA of subunit 1 of the mitochondrial protein NADH dehydrogenase (ND1) from several individuals of a species, which were sampled in a variety of geographical regions. A phylogeny based on the mitochondrial (mt) DNA data is in good agreement with the current classification in the family. Highly divergent mitochondrial lineages were found in two taxa, which differed in at least 11% of their ND1 sequence. The two mtDNA lineages in Plecotus austriacus correlated with the two subspecies Plecotus austriacus austriacus and Plecotus austriacus kolombatovici. The two mtDNA lineages in Myotis mystacinus were partitioned among two morphotypes. The evidence for two new bat species within Europe is discussed. Convergent adaptive evolution might have contributed to the morphological similarity among distantly related species if they occupy similar ecological niches. Closely related species may differ in their ecology but not necessarily in their morphology. On the other hand, two morphologically clearly different species (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus nilssonii) were found to be genetically very similar. Neither morphological nor mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis alone can be guaranteed to identify species.
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              Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

              The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Emerg Infect Dis
                Emerging Infect. Dis
                EID
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                1080-6040
                1080-6059
                April 2018
                : 24
                : 4
                : 782-785
                Affiliations
                [1]Animal Health Research Institute, New Taipei City, Taiwan (S.-C. Hu, M.-S. Lee, Y.-C. Tu, J.-C. Chang, C.-H. Wu, L.-J. Ting, K.-R. Tsai, W.-J. Tu, W.-C. Hsu);
                [2]National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan (C.-L. Hsu);
                [3]Bat Conservation Society of Taipei, Taipei City (C.-L. Hsu);
                [4]Animal Health Research Institute, Miaoli County, Taiwan (S.-H. Lee);
                [5]National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu Township, Pingtung County, Taiwan (M.-C. Cheng)
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Wei-Cheng Hsu, Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, No. 376, Chung-Cheng Rd., Tamsui District, New Taipei City 25158, Taiwan; email: wchsu@ 123456mail.nvri.gov.tw
                Article
                17-1696
                10.3201/eid2404.171696
                5875257
                29553328
                25a1f428-7b01-4bca-ab87-fa6bf7aea46f
                History
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                Dispatch
                Lyssavirus in Japanese Pipistrelle, Taiwan

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                lyssavirus,bat,japanese pipistrelle,pipistrellus abramus,taiwan,viruses

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