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      Restoration of klotho gene expression induces apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cells: tumor suppressive role of klotho in gastric cancer

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          Abstract

          Background

          The loss of tumor suppressor gene expression is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). Klotho is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that epigenetically inactivated in gastric cancer. However, the signaling pathways involved in the suppressive role of klotho have rarely been reported in gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the involvement of klotho in gastric cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy as well as the associated signaling.

          Methods

          Methylation of klotho gene promoter in GC-7901, MNK-45 and AGS gastric cancer cells as well as GES-1 normal gastric epithelial cells was detected by bisulfate-based PCR. Restoration of klotho gene expression was established by applying a demethylating agent and delivering aklotho gene expression vector into GC-7901 cells. Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis and cycling were analyzed by flow cytometry. Autophagy was measured by detecting LC3-I and LC3-II expression. Protein levels and phosphorylation were measured by Western blot assay.

          Results

          Methylation of klotho gene promoter and expression of the klotho gene were detected in GC cells. Restoration of klotho gene expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and increased LC3-I/LC3-II expression in GC cells. Restoration of klotho gene expression downregulated the phosphorylation levels of IGF-1 receptor, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, and mTOR proteins. Both apoptosis and autophagy inhibitors blocked klotho-induced apoptosis and autophagy.

          Conclusion

          Klotho is a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer, which regulates IGF-1R phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Autophagy is activated for cell survival after endoplasmic reticulum stress.

          Eukaryotic cells deal with accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the unfolded protein response, involving the induction of molecular chaperones, translational attenuation, and ER-associated degradation, to prevent cell death. Here, we found that the autophagy system is activated as a novel signaling pathway in response to ER stress. Treatment of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with ER stressors markedly induced the formation of autophagosomes, which were recognized at the ultrastructural level. The formation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3-labeled structures (GFP-LC3 "dots"), representing autophagosomes, was extensively induced in cells exposed to ER stress with conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II. In IRE1-deficient cells or cells treated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, the autophagy induced by ER stress was inhibited, indicating that the IRE1-JNK pathway is required for autophagy activation after ER stress. In contrast, PERK-deficient cells and ATF6 knockdown cells showed that autophagy was induced after ER stress in a manner similar to the wild-type cells. Disturbance of autophagy rendered cells vulnerable to ER stress, suggesting that autophagy plays important roles in cell survival after ER stress.
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            Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?

            The visualization of autophagosomes in dying cells has led to the belief that autophagy is a nonapoptotic form of programmed cell death. This concept has now been evaluated using cells and organisms deficient in autophagy genes. Most evidence indicates that, at least in cells with intact apoptotic machinery, autophagy is primarily a pro-survival rather than a pro-death mechanism. This review summarizes the evidence linking autophagy to cell survival and cell death, the complex interplay between autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and the role of autophagy-dependent survival and death pathways in clinical diseases.
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              Insulin stimulates the cleavage and release of the extracellular domain of Klotho by ADAM10 and ADAM17.

              Cleavage and release (shedding) of membrane proteins is a critical regulatory step in many normal and pathological processes. Evidence suggests that the antiaging transmembrane protein Klotho (KL) is shed from the cell surface by proteolytic cleavage. In this study, we attempted to identify the enzymes responsible for the shedding of KL by treating KL-transfected COS-7 cells with a panel of proteinase inhibitors and measuring cleavage products by Western blot. We report that metalloproteinase inhibitors, including EDTA, EGTA, and TAPI-1, inhibit the shedding of KL, whereas insulin increases shedding. The effects of the inhibitors in KL-transfected COS-7 cells were repeated in studies on rat kidney slices ex vivo, which validates the use of COS-7 cells as our model system. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (Timp)-3 effectively inhibits KL cleavage, whereas Timp-1 and Timp-2 do not, a profile that indicates the involvement of members of the A Desintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family. Cotransfection of KL with either ADAM10 or ADAM17 enhances KL cleavage, whereas cotransfection of KL with small interference RNAs specific to ADAM10 and ADAM17 inhibits KL secretion. These results indicate that KL shedding is mediated mainly by ADAM10 and ADAM17 in KL-transfected COS-7 cells. The effect of insulin is abolished when ADAM10 or ADAM17 are silenced. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the effect of insulin on KL shedding is inhibited by wortmannin, showing that insulin acts through a PI3K-dependent pathway. Insulin enhances KL shedding without increasing ADAM10 and ADAM17 mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that it acts by stimulating their proteolytic activities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Cell Int
                Cancer Cell Int
                Cancer Cell International
                BioMed Central
                1475-2867
                2013
                21 February 2013
                : 13
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departemt of Geriatric Surgery, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China
                [2 ]Department of General Surgery, 8th Changsha Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, 410015, China
                Article
                1475-2867-13-18
                10.1186/1475-2867-13-18
                3599807
                23432957
                Copyright ©2013 Xie et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Primary Research

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                apoptosis, autophagy, gastric cancer, klotho

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