Circulating antieosinophil antibodies (AEOSA) have been associated with various autoimmune conditions affecting the liver, kidneys, lungs, and joints but are not part of routine clinical diagnostics. While analyzing human sera for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on granulocytes, 0.8% of analyzed samples were found to be reactive with eosinophils. Our aim was to determine the diagnostic relevance and antigenic specificity of AEOSA. AEOSA were seen either in combination with an myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive p-ANCA (44%; AEOSA+/ANCA+) or on their own (56%; AEOSA+/ANCA−). AEOSA/ANCA positivity was seen in patients with thyroid disease (44%) or vasculitis (31%), while AEOSA+/ANCA− pattern was more common in patients with autoimmune disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and/or liver. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) was the main target recognized in 66% of the AEOSA+ sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) were also identified as target antigens but less frequently and only in combination with EPX. In conclusion, we confirmed that EPX is a major target of AEOSA, illustrating the high antigenic potential of EPX. Our results also demonstrate the presence of concomitant AEOSA/ANCA positivity in a defined patient group. Further research should aim to elucidate the association of AEOSA with autoimmunity.