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      The genus Phasgonophora Westwood, 1832 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) in Saudi Arabia: re-evaluation of its limits and description of three new species

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          A phylogenetic study based on 25 species of Phasgonophorinae (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and 36 characters was carried out for ensuring the generic placement of three new species from Saudi Arabia. As a result of this study, the genera Trigonura Sichel, 1866, Bactrochalcis Kieffer, 1912, Centrochalcis Cameron, 1913, Centrochalcidia Gahan & Fagan, 1923, Chalcidellia Girault, 1924, Urochalcis Nikol’skaya, 1952, Trigonurella Bouček, 1988, and Muhabbetella Koçak & Kemal, 2008 are synonymized with Phasgonophora Westwood, 1832. This genus is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, represented here by P. rubens (Klug), and newly described species P. baiocchii Soliman & Gul, sp. nov., P. granulis Delvare, sp. nov., and P. magnanii Gadallah & Gul, sp. nov. An illustrated key to species of the Arabian Peninsula is provided. The relevant specimens were mostly reared from buprestid species infesting Acacia sp. and Dodonaea viscosa in Al-Baha, Asir and Riyadh regions, Saudi Arabia.

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          The type species of the genera of Chalcidoidea or chalcid-flies

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            The North American Species of Trigonura (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae)

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              Ultra-Conserved Elements and morphology reciprocally illuminate conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses in Chalcididae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

              Recent technical advances combined with novel computational approaches promised the acceleration of our understanding of the tree of life. However, when it comes to hyperdiverse and poorly known groups of invertebrates, studies are still scarce. As published phylogenies will be rarely challenged by future taxonomists, careful attention must be paid to potential analytical bias. We present the first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the family Chalcididae, an emblematic group of parasitoid wasps, with a representative sampling (144 ingroups and 7 outgroups) that covers all described subfamilies and tribes and 82% of the known genera. Analyses of 538 Ultra-Conserved Elements (UCEs) with supermatrix (RAxML and IQTREE) and gene-tree reconciliation approaches (ASTRAL, ASTRID) resulted in highly supported topologies in overall agreement with morphology but reveal conflicting topologies for some of the deepest nodes. To resolve these conflicts, we explored the phylogenetic tree space with clustering and gene genealogy interrogation methods, analyzed marker and taxon properties that could bias inferences and performed a thorough morphological analysis (130 characters encoded for 40 taxa representative of the diversity). This joint analysis reveals that UCEs enable attainment of resolution between ancestry and convergent /divergent evolution when morphology is not informative enough, but also shows that a systematic exploration of bias with different analytical methods and a careful analysis of morphological features is required to prevent publication of artefactual results. We highlight a GC-content bias for ML approaches, an artefactual mid-point rooting of the ASTRAL tree and a deleterious effect of high percentage of missing data on gene tree reconciliation methods. Based on the results we propose a new classification of the family into eight subfamilies and 10 tribes that lay the foundation for future studies on the evolutionary history of Chalcididae.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                April 27 2020
                April 27 2020
                : 76
                : 1-38
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.76.38340
                © 2020

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