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      Impact of diabetes and hypertension on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease receiving percutaneous coronary intervention

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          Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a necessary procedure commonly performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the impact of diabetes and hypertension on long-term outcomes of patients after receiving PCI has not yet been determined.


          The data of 1234 patients who received PCI were collected prospectively, and patients were divided into four groups, including patients with and without DM and those with either DM or hypertension alone. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, medications and angiographic findings were compared and determinants of cardiovascular outcomes were analyzed in patients who received PCI.


          Patients with DM alone had the highest all-cause mortality ( P < 0.001), cardiovascular mortality and myocardial infarctions (MI) (both P < 0.01) compared to the other groups. However, no differences were found between groups in repeat PCI ( P = 0.32). Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, chronic kidney disease (CKD), previous MI and stroke history were risk factors for all-cause mortality (OR: 1.05,1.89, 2.87, and 4.12, respectively), and use of beta-blockers (BB) and statins reduced all-cause mortality (OR: 0.47 and 0.35, respectively). Previous MI and stroke history, P2Y12 inhibitor use, and syntax scores all predicted CV mortality (OR: 4.02, 1.89, 2.87, and 1.04, respectively). Use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), beta-blockers (BB), and statins appeared to reduce risk of CV death (OR: 0.37, 0.33, and 0.32, respectively). Previous MI and syntax scores predicted MI (OR: 3.17 and 1.03, respectively), and statin use reduced risk of MI (OR: 0.43). Smoking and BB use were associated with repeat PCI (OR: 1.48 and 1.56, respectively).


          After PCI, patients with DM alone have higher mortality compared to patients without DM and hypertension, with both DM and hypertension, and with hypertension alone. Comorbid hypertension does not appear to increase risk in DM patients, whereas comorbid DM appears to increase risk in hypertensive patients.

          Trial registration

          REC103-15 IRB of Taichung Tzu-chi Hospital

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          Most cited references 14

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          Prevalence and predictors of culprit plaque rupture at OCT in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

          The prevalence of plaque rupture at the culprit lesion identified by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in different clinical subset of patients undergoing coronary angiography and its clinical predictors remain to be defined.
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            Outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the current era: a report from the Prevention of REStenosis with Tranilast and its Outcomes (PRESTO) trial.

            Diabetes portends an adverse prognosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether improvements in current clinical practice (stents, IIb/IIIa antagonists) have resulted in substantial improvement of these outcomes remains an issue. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diabetes on 9-month outcomes of patients undergoing PCI in the current era. The 11 482 patients enrolled in the Prevention of REStenosis with Tranilast and its Outcomes (PRESTO) Trial were stratified according to the presence (n=2694) or absence (n=8798) of diabetes. Diabetic patients were older; were more likely to be female; had a higher proportion of congestive failure, hypertension, prior CABG, and unstable angina; and had higher body mass index and lower ejection fraction than nondiabetic patients (P<0.01 for all comparisons). The degree of multivessel disease was similar between the two groups. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association type C lesions were more common in diabetic patients (17% versus 15%, P<0.01). Angiographic and procedural success rates and in-hospital events were similar between the two groups. The primary end point of death, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization (TVR) was analyzed as time-to-first event within 9 months of the index PCI. After adjusting for certain baseline characteristics, diabetes was independently associated with death at 9 months (relative risk [RR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.68, P<0.01) and with an increased likelihood of TVR (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.42, P<0.01), as well as the composite end point of death/myocardial infarction/TVR (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.40, P<0.01). Despite advances in interventional techniques, diabetes remains a significant independent predictor of adverse events in the intermediate term after PCI.
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              Influence of diabetes mellitus on clinical outcomes following primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

              Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a worse outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) than nondiabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to compare rates of stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), and death in diabetic and nondiabetic patients treated with primary PCI for ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) in Western Denmark. From January 2002 through June 2005, 3,655 consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI and stent implantation (316 patients with DM, 8.6%; 3,339 patients without DM, 91.4%) were recorded in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. All patients were followed for 3 years. Cox regression analysis was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs), controlling for potential confounding. Three-year rates of definite stent thrombosis were 1.6% in the DM group and 1.5% in the non-DM group (adjusted HR 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50 to 2.67). The rate of MI was 12.3% in the DM group versus 5.6% in the non-DM group (adjusted HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.81 to 3.61). Rates of TLR were 12.1% in the DM group and 8.7% in the non-DM group (adjusted HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.11). All-cause mortality was 23.7% in patients with DM versus 12.7% in patients without DM (adjusted HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.59 to 2.59). In conclusion, stent thrombosis rate was similar in patients with and without DM and STEMI treated with primary PCI, whereas the presence of DM increased the risk of MI, TLR, and death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                +886-3-3281200 ,
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                5 January 2017
                5 January 2017
                : 17
                [1 ]Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical foundation, Taichung, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
                [3 ]Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan
                [4 ]School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [5 ]Division of Pediatric General Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linko, No. 5, Fu-Hsin Street, Kweishan, Taoyuan, 33057 Taiwan
                [6 ]College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2017

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, pci


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