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      Summarizing the Effective Herbs for the Treatment of Hypertensive Nephropathy by Complex Network and Machine Learning

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          Abstract

          Hypertensive nephropathy is a common complication of hypertension. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used in the clinical treatment of hypertensive nephropathy for a long time, but the commonly used prescriptions have not been summarized, and the basic therapeutic approaches have not been discussed. Based on data from 3 years of electronic medical records of traditional Chinese medicine used at the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a complex network and machine learning algorithm was used to explore the prescribed herbs of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of hypertensive nephropathy (HN). In this study, complex network algorithms were used to describe traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for HN treatment. The Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the compatibility of these treatments with modern medicine. Data on the targets and regulatory genes related to hypertensive nephropathy and the herbs that affect their expression were obtained from public databases, and then, the signaling pathways enriched with these genes were identified on the basis of their participation in biological processes. A clustering algorithm was used to analyze the therapeutic pathways at multiple levels. A total of 1499 prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicines used for the treatment of hypertensive renal damage were identified. Fourteen herbs used to treat hypertensive nephropathy act through different biological pathways: huangqi, danshen, dangshen, fuling, baizhu, danggui, chenpi, banxia, gancao, qumai, cheqianzi, ezhu, qianshi, and niuxi. We found the formulae of these herbs and observed that they could downregulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL1B, and IL6 and the NF- κB and MAPK signaling pathways to reduce the renal inflammatory damage caused by excessive activation of RAAS. In addition, these herbs could facilitate the deceleration in the decline of renal function and relieve the symptoms of hypertensive nephropathy. In this study, the traditional Chinese medicine approach for treating hypertensive renal damage is summarized and effective treatment prescriptions were identified and analyzed. Data mining technology provided a feasible method for the collation and extraction of traditional Chinese medicine prescription data and provided an objective and reliable tool for use in determining the TCM treatments of hypertensive nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 47

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          clusterProfiler: an R package for comparing biological themes among gene clusters.

          Increasing quantitative data generated from transcriptomics and proteomics require integrative strategies for analysis. Here, we present an R package, clusterProfiler that automates the process of biological-term classification and the enrichment analysis of gene clusters. The analysis module and visualization module were combined into a reusable workflow. Currently, clusterProfiler supports three species, including humans, mice, and yeast. Methods provided in this package can be easily extended to other species and ontologies. The clusterProfiler package is released under Artistic-2.0 License within Bioconductor project. The source code and vignette are freely available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/clusterProfiler.html.
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            Metascape provides a biologist-oriented resource for the analysis of systems-level datasets

            A critical component in the interpretation of systems-level studies is the inference of enriched biological pathways and protein complexes contained within OMICs datasets. Successful analysis requires the integration of a broad set of current biological databases and the application of a robust analytical pipeline to produce readily interpretable results. Metascape is a web-based portal designed to provide a comprehensive gene list annotation and analysis resource for experimental biologists. In terms of design features, Metascape combines functional enrichment, interactome analysis, gene annotation, and membership search to leverage over 40 independent knowledgebases within one integrated portal. Additionally, it facilitates comparative analyses of datasets across multiple independent and orthogonal experiments. Metascape provides a significantly simplified user experience through a one-click Express Analysis interface to generate interpretable outputs. Taken together, Metascape is an effective and efficient tool for experimental biologists to comprehensively analyze and interpret OMICs-based studies in the big data era.
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              2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2021
                11 June 2021
                11 June 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                1School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250014, China
                2The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250014, China
                3First School of Clinical Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250014, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior

                Article
                10.1155/2021/5590743
                8214481
                34194519
                Copyright © 2021 Jia-Ming Huan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Shandong University
                Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program
                Award ID: 2017YFC1703506
                Award ID: 2017YFC1703502
                Funded by: Jinan Science and Technology Bureau
                Award ID: 202019149
                Funded by: State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China
                Award ID: 23
                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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