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      Assembly of COPI and COPII Vesicular Coat Proteins on Membranes

      1 , 1
      Annual Review of Biophysics
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          In eukaryotes, distinct transport vesicles functionally connect various intracellular compartments. These carriers mediate transport of membranes for the biogenesis and maintenance of organelles, secretion of cargo proteins and peptides, and uptake of cargo into the cell. Transport vesicles have distinct protein coats that assemble on a donor membrane where they can select cargo and curve the membrane to form a bud. A multitude of structural elements of coat proteins have been solved by X-ray crystallography. More recently, the architectures of the COPI and COPII coats were elucidated in context with their membrane by cryo-electron tomography. Here, we describe insights gained from the structures of these two coat lattices and discuss the resulting functional implications.

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          Most cited references138

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          COPII: a membrane coat formed by Sec proteins that drive vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum.

          In vitro synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles has been reconstituted with washed membranes and three soluble proteins (Sar1p, Sec13p complex, and Sec23p complex). Vesicle formation requires GTP but can be driven by nonhydrolyzable analogs such as GMP-PNP. However, GMP-PNP vesicles fail to target and fuse with the Golgi complex whereas GTP vesicles are functional. All the cytosolic proteins required for vesicle formation are retained on GMP-PNP vesicles, while Sar1p dissociates from GTP vesicles. Thin section electron microscopy of purified preparations reveals a uniform population of 60-65 nm vesicles with a 10 nm thick electron dense coat. The subunits of this novel coat complex are molecularly distinct from the constituents of the nonclathrin coatomer involved in intra-Golgi transport. Because the overall cycle of budding driven by these two types of coats appears mechanistically similar, we propose that the coat structures be called COPI and COPII.
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            Visualizing the molecular sociology at the HeLa cell nuclear periphery.

            The molecular organization of eukaryotic nuclear volumes remains largely unexplored. Here we combined recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to produce three-dimensional snapshots of the HeLa cell nuclear periphery. Subtomogram averaging and classification of ribosomes revealed the native structure and organization of the cytoplasmic translation machinery. Analysis of a large dynamic structure-the nuclear pore complex-revealed variations detectable at the level of individual complexes. Cryo-ET was used to visualize previously elusive structures, such as nucleosome chains and the filaments of the nuclear lamina, in situ. Elucidation of the lamina structure provides insight into its contribution to metazoan nuclear stiffness.
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              Molecular architecture and functional model of the endocytic AP2 complex.

              AP2 is the best-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor complexes that play pivotal roles in many vesicle trafficking pathways within the cell. AP2 functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the process whereby cargo enters the endosomal system from the plasma membrane. We describe the structure of the 200 kDa AP2 "core" (alpha trunk, beta2 trunk, mu2, and sigma2) complexed with the polyphosphatidylinositol headgroup mimic inositolhexakisphosphate at 2.6 A resolution. Two potential polyphosphatidylinositide binding sites are observed, one on alpha and one on mu2. The binding site for Yxxphi endocytic motifs is buried, indicating that a conformational change, probably triggered by phosphorylation in the disordered mu2 linker, is necessary to allow Yxxphi motif binding. A model for AP2 recruitment and activation is proposed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Biophysics
                Annu. Rev. Biophys.
                Annual Reviews
                1936-122X
                1936-1238
                May 20 2018
                May 20 2018
                : 47
                : 1
                : 63-83
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Heidelberg University Biochemistry Centre, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany;,
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-biophys-070317-033259
                29345989
                25dc40c2-e0d1-4cd1-a373-fa842e70ef61
                © 2018
                History

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