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      Rationale and design of the Coronary Microvascular Angina Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CorCMR) diagnostic study: the CorMicA CMR sub-study

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          Angina with no obstructive coronary artery disease (ANOCA) is a common syndrome with unmet clinical needs. Microvascular and vasospastic angina are relevant but may not be diagnosed without measuring coronary vascular function. The relationship between cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived myocardial blood flow (MBF) and reference invasive coronary function tests is uncertain. We hypothesise that multiparametric CMR assessment will be clinically useful in the ANOCA diagnostic pathway.


          The Stratified Medical Therapy Using Invasive Coronary Function Testing In Angina (CorMicA) trial is a prospective, blinded, randomised, sham-controlled study comparing two management approaches in patients with ANOCA. We aim to recruit consecutive patients with stable angina undergoing elective invasive coronary angiography. Eligible patients with ANOCA (n=150) will be randomised to invasive coronary artery function-guided diagnosis and treatment (intervention group) or not (control group). Based on these test results, patients will be stratified into disease endotypes: microvascular angina, vasospastic angina, mixed microvascular/vasospastic angina, obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease and non-cardiac chest pain. After randomisation in CorMicA, subjects will be invited to participate in the Coronary Microvascular Angina Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CorCMR) substudy. Patients will undergo multiparametric CMR and have assessments of MBF (using a novel pixel-wise fully quantitative method), left ventricular function and mass, and tissue characterisation (T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement imaging). Abnormalities of myocardial perfusion and associations between MBF and invasive coronary artery function tests will be assessed. The CorCMR substudy represents the largest cohort of ANOCA patients with paired multiparametric CMR and comprehensive invasive coronary vascular function tests.


          The CorMicA trial and CorCMR substudy have UK REC approval (ref.16/WS/0192).

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          Most cited references 39

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          Long-term follow-up of patients with mild coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction.

          Coronary endothelial dysfunction is characterized by vasoconstrictive response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine. Although endothelial dysfunction is considered an early phase of coronary atherosclerosis, there is a paucity of information regarding the outcome of these patients. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the outcome of patients with mild coronary artery disease on the basis of their endothelial function. Follow-up was obtained in 157 patients with mildly diseased coronary arteries who had undergone coronary vascular reactivity evaluation by graded administration of intracoronary acetylcholine, adenosine, and nitroglycerin and intracoronary ultrasound at the time of diagnostic study. Patients were divided on the basis of their response to acetylcholine into 3 groups: group 1 (n=83), patients with normal endothelial function; group 2 (n=32), patients with mild endothelial dysfunction; and group 3 (n=42), patients with severe endothelial dysfunction. Over an average 28-month follow-up (range, 11 to 52 months), none of the patients from group 1 or 2 had cardiac events. However, 6 (14%) with severe endothelial dysfunction had 10 cardiac events (P<0.05 versus groups 1 and 2). Cardiac events included myocardial infarction, percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularization, and/or cardiac death. Severe endothelial dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with increased cardiac events. This study supports the concept that coronary endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.
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            Coronary microvascular reactivity to adenosine predicts adverse outcome in women evaluated for suspected ischemia results from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute WISE (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation) study.

            We investigated whether coronary microvascular dysfunction predicts major adverse outcomes during follow-up among women with signs and symptoms of ischemia. Altered coronary reactivity occurs frequently in women evaluated for suspected ischemia, and the endothelium-dependent component is linked with adverse outcomes. Possible links between endothelium-independent microvascular coronary reactivity and adverse outcomes remain uncertain. As part of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-sponsored WISE (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation), we investigated relationships between major adverse outcomes and baseline coronary flow reserve (CFR) after intracoronary adenosine in 189 women referred to evaluate suspected ischemia. At a mean of 5.4 years, we observed significant associations between CFR and major adverse outcomes (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospital stay for heart failure). An exploratory receiver-operator characteristic analysis identified CFR or=2.32 event rate 12.2%; p = 0.01). Lower CFR was associated with increased risk for major adverse outcomes (hazard ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.30; p = 0.009). This held true among the 152 women without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) (hazard ratio: 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.38; p = 0.008). The CFR significantly improved prediction of adverse outcomes over angiographic CAD severity and other risk conditions. Among women with suspected ischemia and atherosclerosis risk factors, coronary microvascular reactivity to adenosine significantly improves prediction of major adverse outcomes over angiographic CAD severity and CAD risk factors. These findings suggest that coronary microvessels represent novel targets for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to predict and limit adverse outcomes in women. (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation [WISE]; NCT00000554). Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in women with nonobstructive coronary artery disease: a report from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation Study and the St James Women Take Heart Project.

              Women with clinical findings suggestive of ischemia but without findings of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) on angiography represent a frequent clinical problem; predicting prognosis is challenging. The Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study examined symptomatic women referred for clinically indicated coronary angiography and followed up for a mean 5.2 years. The St James Women Take Heart (WTH) Project enrolled asymptomatic, community-based women with no history of heart disease who were followed up for 10 years. We compared cardiovascular events (ie, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure) and death in 540 WISE women with suspected ischemia but no angiographic evidence of obstructive CAD with those from a cohort of 1000 age- and race-matched WTH women. Compared with the WISE women, asymptomatic WTH women had a lower prevalence of obesity, family history of CAD, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (P < .001). Five-year annualized event rates for cardiovascular events were 16.0% in WISE women with nonobstructive CAD (stenosis in any coronary artery of 1%-49%), 7.9% in WISE women with normal coronary arteries (stenosis of 0% in all coronary arteries), and 2.4% in asymptomatic WTH women (P < or = .002), after adjusting for baseline CAD risk factors. The cardiovascular events were most frequent in women with 4 or more cardiac risk factors, with the 5-year annualized cardiovascular event rate being 25.3% in women with nonobstructive CAD, 13.9% in WISE women with normal coronary arteries, and 6.5% in asymptomatic women (P = .003). Women with symptoms and signs suggestive of ischemia but without obstructive CAD are at elevated risk for cardiovascular events compared with asymptomatic community-based women.

                Author and article information

                Open Heart
                Open Heart
                Open Heart
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                30 December 2018
                : 5
                : 2
                [1 ] departmentBritish Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre , University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK
                [2 ] departmentWest of Scotland Heart and Lung Centre , Golden Jubilee National Hospital , Glasgow, UK
                [3 ] departmentAdvanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland, USA
                [4 ] departmentSchool of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging , King’s College London , London, UK
                [5 ] departmentRobertson Centre for Biostatistics , University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr David Corcoran; dcorcoran@
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See:

                Funded by: FundRef, British Heart Foundation;
                Award ID: FS/14/15/30661
                Award ID: FS172632744
                Award ID: PG-17- 25-32884
                Award ID: RE/13/5/30177
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