Objective To assess diet-related knowledge and behavior among primary and middle-school students in five cities of Anhui, and to provide evidence for nutrition education and intervention strategies.
Methods A multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 2 045 students in five cities (Huaibei, Bengbu, Ma’anshan, Hefei and Wuhu) of Anhui for a questionnaire survey on nutrition knowledge, diet behavior, food preferences, and diet education.
Results The overall rate of good nutritional awareness was 38.3%; students had the highest rate of awareness on plain water being the healthiest drink (91.6%). The overall rate of healthy food preferences was 51.5%, with milk and dairy products being the highest rated (66.4%). The overall rate of good diet behavior was 85.8%, with eating most meals on time and in appropriate quantities being the highest rated (87.7%). The overall rate of students with good diet education was 25.0%, while the rate of table cleaning was 73.0%. Middle-school students had more knowledge of nutrition (χ 2 = 28.8), while primary school students had better healthy food preferences and diet behaviors (χ 2 = 31.3, 77.6), and girls were more frequently involved in setting and clearing the table (χ 2 = 12.2) ( P<0.05).
Conclusion Insufficient nutrition knowledge, clear food preferences, unhealthy dietary behaviors, and a lack of diet education were observed in primary and middle-school students in Anhui. Specific nutritional education in school settings should be developed, home-school cooperation should be strengthened, and diet education activities should be increased to help primary and middle-school students form a healthy lifestyle.
【摘要】 目的 了解安徽省 2018 年中小学生营养知识、食物喜好、饮食行为和食育体验活动现状, 为相关部门制定学生 营养改善措施提供科学依据。 方法 采取多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法, 从安徽省淮北、蚌埠、马鞍山、合肥、芜湖 5 个地 区随机抽取三年级及以上学生 2 045 名作为调査对象, 采用自填式问卷收集营养知识、食物喜好、饮食行为和食育体验活 动相关信息。 结果 中小学生营养知识总知晓率为 38.3%, 最好的饮料是白开水的知晓率最髙 (91.6%)。健康食物喜好 总报告率为 51.5%, 奶及奶制品的喜好率最髙 (66.4%)。良好饮食行为总报告率为 85.8%, 大部分时候三餐按时按量的报 告率最髙 (87.7%)。食育体验活动总报告率为25.0%, 会收拾餐桌的报告率最髙 (73.0%)。>12 岁学生更多地掌握营养知 识 (χ 2 = 28.8), ≤12 岁学生较好地具有健康食物喜好和良好饮食行为 (χ 2 值分别为 31.3, 77.6), 女生更经常地参与摆放餐 具和收拾餐桌 (χ 2 = 12.2) ( P 值均<0.05)。 结论 中小学生营养知识掌握情况差, 虽有明确的食物喜好, 但存在不良饮食行 为。应有针对性开展校园营养健康教育, 加强家庭和学校合作, 增加学生的食育体验活动机会, 帮助中小学生形成健康的 生活方式。