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      Uranium (VI) detection in groundwater using a gold nanoparticle/paper-based lateral flow device

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          Abstract

          The contamination in groundwater due to the presence of uranium is nowadays a subject of concern due to the severe health problems associated with renal failure, genotoxicity and cancer. The standard methods to detect uranium require time-consuming processes and expensive non-portable equipment, so these measurements are rarely performed in-field, which increases the time until water samples are analysed. Furthermore, the few portable methods available do not allow quantitative analysis and the detection limit is often not low enough to reach the recommendations for drinking water (30 ppb or 126 nM of uranium). For the first time, we propose a portable, fast, inexpensive and sensitive paper-based biosensor able to detect in situ U(VI) in water samples: U(VI) selective gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow strips. Antibody-coated gold nanoparticles are used as labels in the proposed lateral flow system because of their biocompatibility; in addition, these nanoparticles provide high sensitivity due to their intense plasmonic effect. The antibody used in the assay recognizes soluble U(VI) complexed to the chelator, 2,9-dicarboxyl-1,10-phenanthroline (DCP). Because of the small size of the U(VI)-DCP complex, this assay employs a competitive format that reaches a limit of detection of 36.38 nM, lower than the action level (126 nM) established by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking waters.

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          Most cited references 53

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          A study of the nucleation and growth processes in the synthesis of colloidal gold

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            Paper-based microfluidic point-of-care diagnostic devices.

            Dipstick and lateral-flow formats have dominated rapid diagnostics over the last three decades. These formats gained popularity in the consumer markets due to their compactness, portability and facile interpretation without external instrumentation. However, lack of quantitation in measurements has challenged the demand of existing assay formats in consumer markets. Recently, paper-based microfluidics has emerged as a multiplexable point-of-care platform which might transcend the capabilities of existing assays in resource-limited settings. However, paper-based microfluidics can enable fluid handling and quantitative analysis for potential applications in healthcare, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and food safety. Currently, in its early development stages, paper-based microfluidics is considered a low-cost, lightweight, and disposable technology. The aim of this review is to discuss: (1) fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices, (2) functionalisation of microfluidic components to increase the capabilities and the performance, (3) introduction of existing detection techniques to the paper platform and (4) exploration of extracting quantitative readouts via handheld devices and camera phones. Additionally, this review includes challenges to scaling up, commercialisation and regulatory issues. The factors which limit paper-based microfluidic devices to become real world products and future directions are also identified.
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              Nanoparticle Probes for the Detection of Cancer Biomarkers, Cells, and Tissues by Fluorescence.

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.7080.f, Nanobioelectronics & Biosensors Group, , Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, ; 08193 Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2217 8588, GRID grid.265219.b, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, , Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, ; New Orleans, Louisiana 70112 United States
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9679 3586, GRID grid.268355.f, Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, , Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, ; New Orleans, Louisiana 70125 United States
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9601 989X, GRID grid.425902.8, ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, ; 08010 Barcelona, Spain
                Contributors
                arben.merkoci@icn2.cat
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                1 November 2018
                1 November 2018
                2018
                : 8
                30385866 6212437 34610 10.1038/s41598-018-34610-5
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: US National Science Foundation (OISE‐1253272)
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