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      Role of lipid peroxidation derived 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in cancer: Focusing on mitochondria

      review-article

      a , b , c , a , b , c , d , *

      Redox Biology

      Elsevier

      Lipid peroxidation, 4-HNE, Mitochondria, Cancer, Free radicals, Cardiolipin, 4-HNE, 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, 4-ONE, 4-oxo-2-nonenal, 8-oxo-dG, 8-oxoguanine, AA, arachidonic acid, ADH, alcohol dehydrogenases, AKRs, aldo-keto reductases, ALDH, aldehyde dehydrogenases, ALDH2, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family(mitochondrial), As2O3, arsenic trioxide, ATP5B, ATP synthase subunit β, CL, cardiolipin, DHA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHN, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene, DOX, doxorubicin, EAA-CL, epoxyalcohol-aldehyde-cardiolipin, ETC, electron transport chain, FapyA, 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine, FapyG, 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine, GSH, glutathione, GS-HNE, glutathionyl-HNE, GSTs, glutathione-S-transferases, HADHA, trifunctional enzyme subunit α, HNA, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid, HODE, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, HpODE, hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, IMM, inner membrane of mitochondria, KODE, keto-octadecadienoic acid, L4CL, tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin, LA, linoleic acid, LPO, lipid peroxidation, mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA, NDUFS2, NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron–sulfur protein 2, OMM, outer membrane of mitochondria, PC, phosphatidylcholine, PE, phosphatidylethanolamine, PS, phosphatidylserine, PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids, ROS, reactive oxygen species, SDHA, succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, UADT, upper aero digestive track, UCPs, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins

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          Abstract

          Oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation has been associated with human physiology and diseases including cancer. Overwhelming data suggest that reactive lipid mediators generated from this process, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), are biomarkers for oxidative stress and important players for mediating a number of signaling pathways. The biological effects of 4-HNE are primarily due to covalent modification of important biomolecules including proteins, DNA, and phospholipids containing amino group. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the role of 4-HNE in pathogenesis of cancer and focus on the involvement of mitochondria: generation of 4-HNE from oxidation of mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin; covalent modification of mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA; potential therapeutic strategies for targeting mitochondrial ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, and 4-HNE.

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          Most cited references 51

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          A mitochondrial switch promotes tumor metastasis.

          Metastatic progression of cancer is associated with poor outcome, and here we examine metabolic changes underlying this process. Although aerobic glycolysis is known to promote metastasis, we have now identified a different switch primarily affecting mitochondria. The switch involves overload of the electron transport chain (ETC) with preserved mitochondrial functions but increased mitochondrial superoxide production. It provides a metastatic advantage phenocopied by partial ETC inhibition, another situation associated with enhanced superoxide production. Both cases involved protein tyrosine kinases Src and Pyk2 as downstream effectors. Thus, two different events, ETC overload and partial ETC inhibition, promote superoxide-dependent tumor cell migration, invasion, clonogenicity, and metastasis. Consequently, specific scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide with mitoTEMPO blocked tumor cell migration and prevented spontaneous tumor metastasis in murine and human tumor models.
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            Mitochondrial complex I activity and NAD+/NADH balance regulate breast cancer progression.

            Despite advances in clinical therapy, metastasis remains the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, including those affecting complex I and oxidative phosphorylation, are found in breast tumors and could facilitate metastasis. This study identifies mitochondrial complex I as critical for defining an aggressive phenotype in breast cancer cells. Specific enhancement of mitochondrial complex I activity inhibited tumor growth and metastasis through regulation of the tumor cell NAD+/NADH redox balance, mTORC1 activity, and autophagy. Conversely, nonlethal reduction of NAD+ levels by interfering with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase expression rendered tumor cells more aggressive and increased metastasis. The results translate into a new therapeutic strategy: enhancement of the NAD+/NADH balance through treatment with NAD+ precursors inhibited metastasis in xenograft models, increased animal survival, and strongly interfered with oncogene-driven breast cancer progression in the MMTV-PyMT mouse model. Thus, aberration in mitochondrial complex I NADH dehydrogenase activity can profoundly enhance the aggressiveness of human breast cancer cells, while therapeutic normalization of the NAD+/NADH balance can inhibit metastasis and prevent disease progression.
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              A signalling role for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling.

              Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with disease and aging. Oxidative stress results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), often leading to peroxidation of membrane phospholipids and production of reactive aldehydes, particularly 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation protects by decreasing mitochondrial ROS production. We find that hydroxynonenal and structurally related compounds (such as trans-retinoic acid, trans-retinal and other 2-alkenals) specifically induce uncoupling of mitochondria through the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT). Hydroxynonenal-induced uncoupling was inhibited by potent inhibitors of ANT (carboxyatractylate and bongkrekate) and UCP (GDP). The GDP-sensitive proton conductance induced by hydroxynonenal correlated with tissue expression of UCPs, appeared in yeast mitochondria expressing UCP1 and was absent in skeletal muscle mitochondria from UCP3 knockout mice. The carboxyatractylate-sensitive hydroxynonenal stimulation correlated with ANT content in mitochondria from Drosophila melanogaster expressing different amounts of ANT. Our findings indicate that hydroxynonenal is not merely toxic, but may be a biological signal to induce uncoupling through UCPs and ANT and thus decrease mitochondrial ROS production.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Redox Biol
                Redox Biol
                Redox Biology
                Elsevier
                2213-2317
                29 December 2014
                April 2015
                29 December 2014
                : 4
                : 193-199
                Affiliations
                [a ]Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences (INS), Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China
                [b ]University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS, Beijing, China
                [c ]Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing, China
                [d ]School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Room 1826, New Life Science Building, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. hyyin@ 123456sibs.ac.cn
                Article
                S2213-2317(14)00135-9
                10.1016/j.redox.2014.12.011
                4803793
                25598486
                260687dc-0921-4fc8-a837-33c2e045a37b
                © 2014 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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