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Prevalence of primary aldosteronism among bulgarian hypertensive patients

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      Abstract

      Primary aldosteronism (PA) has long been considered a rare disease, but a higher prevalence was suggested recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PA in a group of Bulgarian hypertensive patients, including patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI). The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR)>750 was used as a positive screening test and the Captopril test was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Adrenal CT scan was used to differentiate between the main subtypes of PA- aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The diagnosis of APA was retrospectively confirmed after surgery. After excluding other forms of endocrine hypertension, except PA, we investigated a total of 472 consecutive hypertensive patients, among them 96 patients with AI. Final diagnosis of PA was reached in 38 patients (8.05%) in the entire hypertensive population and in 12 patients (12.5%) among hypertensive patients with AI. In the group of PA, 15 patients (39.5%) were diagnosed with APA and 23 patients (60.5%) had an IHA. Among all patients with PA 21 (55.3 %) presented with hypokalemia. Our findings of a relatively high prevalence of PA support an early diagnosis of this potentially curable disease, especially in hypertensive patients with AI.

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      Case detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.

      Our objective was to develop clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism. The Task Force comprised a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS) of The Endocrine Society, six additional experts, one methodologist, and a medical writer. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Systematic reviews of available evidence were used to formulate the key treatment and prevention recommendations. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) group criteria to describe both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations. We used "recommend" for strong recommendations and "suggest" for weak recommendations. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during one group meeting, several conference calls, and multiple e-mail communications. The drafts prepared by the task force with the help of a medical writer were reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's CGS, Clinical Affairs Core Committee (CACC), and Council. The version approved by the CGS and CACC was placed on The Endocrine Society's Web site for comments by members. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. We recommend case detection of primary aldosteronism be sought in higher risk groups of hypertensive patients and those with hypokalemia by determining the aldosterone-renin ratio under standard conditions and that the condition be confirmed/excluded by one of four commonly used confirmatory tests. We recommend that all patients with primary aldosteronism undergo adrenal computed tomography as the initial study in subtype testing and to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. We recommend the presence of a unilateral form of primary aldosteronism should be established/excluded by bilateral adrenal venous sampling by an experienced radiologist and, where present, optimally treated by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. We recommend that patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, or those unsuitable for surgery, optimally be treated medically by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
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        Evidence for an increased rate of cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism.

        The aim of this report was to show that the rate of cardiovascular events is increased in patients with either subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). Primary aldosteronism involves hypertension (HTN), hypokalemia, and low plasma renin. The two major PA subtypes are unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During a three-year period, the diagnosis of PA was made in 124 of 5,500 patients referred for comprehensive evaluation and management. Adenomas were diagnosed in 65 patients and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism in 59 patients. During the same period, clinical characteristics and cardiovascular events of this group were compared with those of 465 patients with essential hypertension (EHT) randomly matched for age, gender, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A history of stroke was found in 12.9% of patients with PA and 3.4% of patients with EHT (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0 to 8.6]). Non-fatal myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 4.0% of patients with PA and in 0.6% of patients with EHT (OR = 6.5; 95% CI 1.5 to 27.4). A history of atrial fibrillation was diagnosed in 7.3% of patients with PA and 0.6% of patients with EHT (OR = 12.1; 95% CI 3.2 to 45.2). The occurrence of cardiovascular complications was comparable in both subtypes of PA. Patients presenting with PA experienced more cardiovascular events than did EHT patients independent of blood pressure. The presence of PA should be detected, not only to determine the cause of HTN, but also to prevent such complications.
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          Increased diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, including surgically correctable forms, in centers from five continents.

          Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common form of endocrine hypertension previously believed to account for less than 1% of hypertensive patients. Hypokalemia was considered a prerequisite for pursuing diagnostic tests for PA. Recent studies applying the plasma aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio (ARR) as a screening test have reported a higher prevalence. This study is a retrospective evaluation of the diagnosis of PA from clinical centers in five continents before and after the widespread use of the ARR as a screening test. The application of this strategy to a greater number of hypertensives led to a 5- to 15-fold increase in the identification of patients affected by PA. Only a small proportion of patients (between 9 and 37%) were hypokalemic. The annual detection rate of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) increased in all centers (by 1.3-6.3 times) after the wide application of ARR. Aldosterone-producing adenomas constituted a much higher proportion of patients with PA in the four centers that employed adrenal venous sampling (28-50%) than in the center that did not (9%). In conclusion, the wide use of the ARR as a screening test in hypertensive patients led to a marked increase in the detection rate of PA.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Open Medicine
            Walter de Gruyter GmbH
            2391-5463
            January 1 2010
            January 1 2010
            : 5
            : 3
            10.2478/s11536-010-0005-x
            © 2010

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