5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Entrectinib and other ALK/TRK inhibitors for the treatment of neuroblastoma

      ,

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove Medical Press

      neuroblastoma, entrectinib, ALK, TRK, ROS1

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          RTK plays important roles in many cellular signaling processes involved in cancer growth and development. ALK, TRKA, TRKB, TRKC, and ROS1 are RTKs involved in several canonical pathways related to oncogenesis. These proteins can be genetically altered in malignancies, leading to receptor activation and constitutive signaling through their respective downstream pathways. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, and despite intensive therapy, there is a high mortality rate in cases with a high-risk disease. Alterations of ALK and differential expression of TRK proteins are reported in a proportion of NB. Several inhibitors of ALK or TRKA/B/C have been evaluated both preclinically and clinically in the treatment of NB. These agents have had variable success and are not routinely used in the treatment of NB. Entrectinib (RXDX-101) is a pan-ALK, TRKA, TRKB, TRKC, and ROS1 inhibitor with activity against tumors with ALK, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, and ROS1 alterations in Phase I clinical trials in adults. Entrectinib’s activity against both ALK and TRK proteins suggests a possible role in NB treatment, and it is currently under investigation in both pediatric and adult oncology patients.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 107

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Oncogenic kinase signalling.

           Jon Hunter,  P Blume (2001)
          Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are important regulators of intracellular signal-transduction pathways mediating development and multicellular communication in metazoans. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Perturbation of PTK signalling by mutations and other genetic alterations results in deregulated kinase activity and malignant transformation. The lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and some of its downstream targets, such as the protein-serine/threonine kinases Akt and p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), are crucial effectors in oncogenic PTK signalling. This review emphasizes how oncogenic conversion of protein kinases results from perturbation of the normal autoinhibitory constraints on kinase activity and provides an update on our knowledge about the role of deregulated PI(3)K/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K signalling in human malignancies.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            ROS1 rearrangements define a unique molecular class of lung cancers.

            Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase gene have recently been described in a subset of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Because little is known about these tumors, we examined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with NSCLC with ROS1 rearrangement. Using a ROS1 fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, we screened 1,073 patients with NSCLC and correlated ROS1 rearrangement status with clinical characteristics, overall survival, and when available, ALK rearrangement status. In vitro studies assessed the responsiveness of cells with ROS1 rearrangement to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. The clinical response of one patient with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC to crizotinib was investigated as part of an expanded phase I cohort. Of 1,073 tumors screened, 18 (1.7%) were ROS1 rearranged by FISH, and 31 (2.9%) were ALK rearranged. Compared with the ROS1-negative group, patients with ROS1 rearrangements were significantly younger and more likely to be never-smokers (each P < .001). All of the ROS1-positive tumors were adenocarcinomas, with a tendency toward higher grade. ROS1-positive and -negative groups showed no difference in overall survival. The HCC78 ROS1-rearranged NSCLC cell line and 293 cells transfected with CD74-ROS1 showed evidence of sensitivity to crizotinib. The patient treated with crizotinib showed tumor shrinkage, with a near complete response. ROS1 rearrangement defines a molecular subset of NSCLC with distinct clinical characteristics that are similar to those observed in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Crizotinib shows in vitro activity and early evidence of clinical activity in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Sequencing of neuroblastoma identifies chromothripsis and defects in neuritogenesis genes.

              Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. The pathogenesis has for a long time been quite enigmatic, as only very few gene defects were identified in this often lethal tumour. Frequently detected gene alterations are limited to MYCN amplification (20%) and ALK activations (7%). Here we present a whole-genome sequence analysis of 87 neuroblastoma of all stages. Few recurrent amino-acid-changing mutations were found. In contrast, analysis of structural defects identified a local shredding of chromosomes, known as chromothripsis, in 18% of high-stage neuroblastoma. These tumours are associated with a poor outcome. Structural alterations recurrently affected ODZ3, PTPRD and CSMD1, which are involved in neuronal growth cone stabilization. In addition, ATRX, TIAM1 and a series of regulators of the Rac/Rho pathway were mutated, further implicating defects in neuritogenesis in neuroblastoma. Most tumours with defects in these genes were aggressive high-stage neuroblastomas, but did not carry MYCN amplifications. The genomic landscape of neuroblastoma therefore reveals two novel molecular defects, chromothripsis and neuritogenesis gene alterations, which frequently occur in high-risk tumours.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                23 October 2018
                : 12
                : 3549-3561
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA, margaret.macy@ 123456childrenscolorado.org
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Margaret E Macy, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and Children’s Hospital Colorado, 13123 East 16th Avenue, Box 115, Aurora, CO 80045, USA, Tel +1 720 777 6458, Fax +1 720 777 7289, Email margaret.macy@ 123456childrenscolorado.org
                Article
                dddt-12-3549
                10.2147/DDDT.S147384
                6204873
                © 2018 Pacenta and Macy. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                ros1, trk, alk, entrectinib, neuroblastoma

                Comments

                Comment on this article