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      Towards a Modern-Day Teaching Machine: The Synthesis of Programmed Instruction and Online Education

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          Abstract

          The 21st century has seen rapid enrollment in online courses and environmental and biological determinates, such as COVID-19, that challenge how universities respond to education. However, this “new way of doing things” has empirical support from the past. Skinner ( 1968) laid out a science of teaching derived from operant conditioning principles and provided methods for adopting programmed instruction into what he termed a “teaching machine.” This series of investigations evaluated the validity of programmed instruction in online courses, as measured by quiz performance, the frequency of discussion posts, instructor time commitment, generalization, and student perceptions of the online modalities used. Results are discussed for the synthesis of programmed instruction and group learning towards a modern teaching machine.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Teaching machines; from the experimental study of learning come devices which arrange optimal conditions for self instruction.

           M. Skinner (1958)
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            The shame of American education.

             B. Skinner (1984)
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              Precision teaching: Discoveries and effects

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wroot@semo.edu
                Journal
                Psychol Rec
                Psychol Rec
                The Psychological Record
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0033-2933
                2163-3452
                27 July 2020
                27 July 2020
                : 1-10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.263825.8, ISNI 0000 0001 2294 369X, Department of Psychology and Counseling, , Southeast Missouri State University, ; Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.430499.3, ISNI 0000 0004 5312 949X, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, ; Chicago, IL USA
                Article
                415
                10.1007/s40732-020-00415-0
                7384556
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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