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      Protective Effect of L-Arginine Intake on the Impaired Renal Vascular Responses in the Gentamicin-Treated Rats

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          The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) treatment on endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation in isolated perfused rat kidney, and the effect of amino acid L-arginine (in the drinking water, 2.25 g/l) on renal dysfunction induced by gentamicin. When gentamicin-treated groups were compared with the control group, it was observed that BUN and creatinine levels increased significantly. Also, the relaxant responses induced by acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and pinacidil decreased. Histopathological examination indicated acute tubular necrosis in this group. In animals treated with gentamicin together with L-arginine, there was a significant amelioration in the BUN and creatinine levels. The vasodilator responses were similar to those of the control group. Histopathological examination indicated only hydropic degeneration in tubular epithelium of kidney. Co-administration of L-N<sup>G</sup>-nitroarginine methyl ester ( L-NAME) (112.5 mg/l), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and L-arginine to rats treated with gentamicin did not change the protective effect of L-arginine. In rats receiving L-NAME alone, the level of BUN and creatinine and vasodilation to acetylcholine were not significantly different when compared to those of the control group, while relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside and pinacidil were increased. These results suggest that gentamicin leads to an impairment in vascular smooth muscle relaxation in addition to acute tubular necrosis in the rat kidney. Supplementation of L-arginine has an important protective effect on gentamicin-induced nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Vascular endothelial cells synthesize nitric oxide from L-arginine.

          Nitric oxide (NO) released by vascular endothelial cells accounts for the relaxation of strips of vascular tissue and for the inhibition of platelet aggregation and platelet adhesion attributed to endothelium-derived relaxing factor. We now demonstrate that NO can be synthesized from L-arginine by porcine aortic endothelial cells in culture. Nitric oxide was detected by bioassay, chemiluminescence or by mass spectrometry. Release of NO from the endothelial cells induced by bradykinin and the calcium ionophore A23187 was reversibly enhanced by infusions of L-arginine and L-citrulline, but not D-arginine or other close structural analogues. Mass spectrometry studies using 15N-labelled L-arginine indicated that this enhancement was due to the formation of NO from the terminal guanidino nitrogen atom(s) of L-arginine. The strict substrate specificity of this reaction suggests that L-arginine is the precursor for NO synthesis in vascular endothelial cells.
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            Colocalization of demethylating enzymes and NOS and functional effects of methylarginines in rat kidney.

            NG-monomethylarginine (L-NMA) and asymmetric NG, NG-dimethylarginines (ADMA) are endogenous inhibitors of cellular L-arginine uptake and/or nitric oxide (NO) synthesis that are implicated in renal parenchymal and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension. Since the L-arginine:(L-NMA + ADMA) ratio determines NO synthase (NOS) activity, we compared the immunohistochemical distribution of NOS with NG, NG-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), which inactivates dimethylarginines (DMA) and L-NMA by hydrolysis to L-citrulline. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) was expressed predominantly in tubular epithelial cells of macula densa (MD), endothelial NOS (eNOS) in vascular endothelial cells (EC), and inducible NOS (iNOS) quite widely in tubular epithelium, including proximal tubules (PT), thick ascending limbs of Henle (TAL), distal convoluted tubule and intercalated cells (IC) of the collecting duct. Immunostaining for DDAH was present in PT, TAL, MD, and IC, and was also present in the glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, and endothelium of blood vessels. DDAH was detected in small vesicles of TAL and PT by electron microscopic (EM) immunocytochemistry. To study the effects of methylarginines on tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response, vehicle or methylarginines (10(-3) M) were added to artificial tubular fluid (ATF) perfused orthogradely from the late PT at 40 nl. min-1 while assessing changes in glomerular capillary pressure from proximal stop flow pressure (PSF). Whereas the maximal TGF responses were unchanged by vehicle (delta TGF 0 +/- 0%) or symmetric DMA (SDMA; +1 +/- 2%, NS), they were enhanced by L-NMA (+22 +/- 4%, P < 0.001) and asymmetric DMA (ADMA; +28 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Since L-arginine transport can regulate renal epithelial NO generation, methylarginines (10(-3) M) or vehicle were co-perfused orthogradely with [3H]-L-arginine from the late PT and collected at the early distal tubule to study arginine uptake from the perfused loop of Henle. All methylarginines reduced fractional loop [3H] absorption significantly (P < 0.001; vehicle, 84 +/- 6; ADMA, 49 +/- 6; SDMA, 56 +/- 6; L-NMA, 41 +/- 6%). In conclusion, sites of DDAH expression in the vasculature or nephron are all sites of expression of an isoform of NOS. L-NMA, ADMA, and SDMA all inhibit renal tubular L-arginine uptake, whereas L-NMA and ADMA, but not SDMA, enhance TGF responses. Therefore, DDAH may regulate the cellular L-arginine: methylarginine levels in specific renal cells, thereby governing cell-specific L-arginine uptake and NO generation in renal tubular epithelium.
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              Functional and analytical evidence for scavenging of oxygen radicals by L-arginine.

              L-Arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide synthase, is known to exert favorable effects in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In several conditions, including atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion, where oxygen metabolites are thought to mediate endothelial and myocardial injury, L-arginine has protective effects. Here we studied the mechanisms by which L-arginine protects against oxygen radical-induced myocardial injury. Buffer-perfused rat hearts were subjected to oxygen radicals generated by electrolysis or to hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase, which generates superoxide anions (O(2)). Both sources of radicals impaired myocardial contractility, whereas L-arginine prevented the impairment. The observation that D-arginine as well as nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, such as N(G)-nitro-L-arginine but not glycine, had similar cardioprotective effects indicated that the protection might be due to a direct chemical interaction of L-arginine and its derivatives with oxygen radicals. In support, L-arginine and the derivatives prevented the formation of O(2) as determined by sensitive standard methods, whereas glycine did not. The radical scavenging activity of L-arginine and derivatives was dose-dependent, with an apparent rate constant of approximately 4.8 x 10(3) M s(-1) for the reaction of L-arginine with O(2) as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using 1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxo-piperidine (TEMPONE-H) as spin trap. In summary, the results of this study demonstrate protective effects of L-arginine against oxygen radical-induced cardiac injury by free radical scavenging.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                June 2005
                19 May 2005
                : 100
                : 2
                : p13-p20
                Departments of aPharmacology, bPathology, and cBiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Çukurova University, Adana, and dDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University Campus Yenişehir, Mersin, Turkey
                84657 Nephron Physiol 2005;100:p13–p20
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 44, Pages: 1
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