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      A new species of aphid of the genus Nipponaphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae) from China, inducing galls on the trunk of a witch-hazel (Hamamelidaceae)

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Plants and insects have co-existed for millions of years. Although research has been conducted on various insect species that induce galls on various plant tissues, information is particularly scarce when it comes to insects that form galls on the tough trunk of their host plants. This contribution describes the gall-inducing aphid Nipponaphis hubeiensis sp. nov. from the Zhushan County, Shiyan City, Hubei Province of China. This aphid induces enclosed galls with woody external layer on the trunk of Sycopsis sinensis (Saxifragales: Hamamelidaceae), an uncommon ecological niche in the aphid-plant interaction system. Morphological features for the identification of new species are provided. In addition, a partial sequence of the nuclear gene EF1α was amplified and sequenced to construct a cluster graph. Based on the clustering graph combined with morphology traits, the gall-forming aphid was classified into Nipponaphis. The unique ecological habits of this new aphid will bring innovative perspectives to the study of the evolution and diversity in aphid-host interaction.

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          Most cited references 46

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          A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.

           Motoo Kimura (1980)
          Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or "transition" type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or "transversion" type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = -(1/2) ln [(1-2P-Q) square root of 1-2Q]. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = -(1/2) ln (1-2P-Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.
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            CLUSTAL: a package for performing multiple sequence alignment on a microcomputer

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              BioEdit: A user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for windows 95/98/NT

               Hall,  T.A. Hall,  T. HALL (1999)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                zool
                Zoologia (Curitiba)
                Zoologia (Curitiba)
                Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia (Curitiba, PR, Brazil )
                1984-4670
                1984-4689
                2021
                : 38
                Affiliations
                Kunming orgnameState Forestry Administration orgdiv1The Key Laboratory of Cultivating and Utilization of Resources Insects China
                Nanjing orgnameNanJing Forestry University China
                Kunming orgnameChinese Academy of Forestry orgdiv1Research Institute of Resources Insects China
                Article
                S1984-46702021000100309 S1984-4670(21)03800000309
                10.3897/zoologia.38.e60598

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 41, Pages: 0
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