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      Identificação do papilomavírus humano em doentes com carcinoma de células escamosas do canal anal e sua relação com o grau de diferenciação celular e estadiamento Translated title: Identification of human papillomavirus in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma and its relation with the grade of cellular differentiation and staging

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de papilomavírus humano (HPV) nos portadores de carcinoma do canal anal (CCA), relacionando-os ao grau de diferenciação celular e estadiamento da lesão, em pacientes do Belém, Pará, entre 1998 e 2000. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo de caso-controle com 75 pacientes, divididos em: Grupo Teste, com 33 portadores de carcinoma do canal anal, e o Grupo Controle, com 42 portadores de doenças não-neoplásicas do canal anal. Os tipos virais foram identificados por PCR e dot blot. O teste exato de Fischer foi utilizado para avaliar a ocorrência de HPV. Adotou-se a tabela de contingência 3x2 para representar a distribuição dos tipos de HPV. Nos testes de hipóteses, foi prefixado o nível de significância α=0,05 para a rejeição da hipótese de nulidade. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do HPV foi significante entre os Grupos Teste (60,6%) e Controle (26,2%) (p=0,0027). Os tipos virais mais comuns foram 16 (42,4%) e 18 (15,2%). Observaram-se diferenças entre grupos na prevalência do HPV 16 (p=0,027) e 18 (p=0,043) no Grupo Teste, e o tipos 16 (19,0%,) e 18 em (2,4%) no Grupo Controle. No Grupo Teste, avaliou-se a distribuição dos tipos de HPV em relação ao estadiamento e ao grau de diferenciação celular, não apresentando diferenças estatisticamente significativas. CONCLUSÃO: O carcinoma de células escamosas do canal anal está associado à presença de HPV, e os tipos 16 e 18 são os mais frequentes

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To identify the most predominant types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in carriers of the anal canal carcinoma (ACC), relating them to the cell differentiation and lesion staging degree, in patients from Belém, Pará, Brazil, between 1998 and 2000. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 75 patients, divided into Test Group, with 33 carriers of the anal canal carcinoma, and Control Group, with 42 carriers of non-neoplastic diseases of the anal canal. The methods employed to identify the viral types were the polymerase chain reaction and the dot blot. The Fisher's exact test was used to assess the HPV occurrence. The distribution of HPV types was analyzed by 3x2 contingency tables, representing the distribution of HPV types. For hypothesis testing, the significance level α=0.05 was previously established for rejection of the null hypothesis. RESULTS: HPV was significantly prevalent (p=0.0027) in the Test (60.6%) and Control Groups (26.2%) (p=0.0027). The most prevalent viral types were HPV 16 (42.4%) and 18 (15.2%). Significant differences related to the prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 were verified between both groups (p=0.027 and p=0.043, respectively). In the Control Group, HPV 16 was found in 19.0%, whereas HPV 18 was observed in 2.4%. In the Test Group, we evaluated the distribution of HPV types according to the staging and degree of cell differentiation, and found no significant differences between the results of the different groups. CONCLUSION: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is associated with the HPV presence, and the 16 and 18 types are the most frequently found

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          Most cited references32

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          The papillomavirus life cycle.

          Papillomaviruses infect epithelial cells, and depend on epithelial differentiation for completion of their life cycle. The expression of viral gene products is closely regulated as the infected basal cell migrates towards the epithelial surface. Expression of E6 and E7 in the lower epithelial layers drives cells into S-phase, which creates an environment that is conducive for viral genome replication and cell proliferation. Genome amplification, which is necessary for the production of infectious virions, is prevented until the levels of viral replication proteins rise, and depends on the co-expression of several viral proteins. Virus capsid proteins are expressed in cells that also express E4 as the infected cell enters the upper epithelial layers. The timing of these events varies depending on the infecting papillomavirus, and in the case of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), on the severity of neoplasia. Viruses that are evolutionarily related, such as HPV1 and canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), generally organize their productive cycle in a similar way, despite infecting different hosts and epithelial sites. In some instances, such as following HPV16 infection of the cervix or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection of domestic rabbits, papillomaviruses can undergo abortive infections in which the productive cycle of the virus is not completed. As with other DNA tumour viruses, such abortive infections can predispose to cancer.
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            Human papillomaviruses and cervical cancer.

            L Villa (1996)
            Molecular and epidemiological studies conducted over the last 20 years led to the recognition of certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agents of cervical cancer, a very common neoplasia, particularly in developing countries. More than 70 HPVs have been described, including both cutaneous and mucosal types. About half of the known HPVs, and an even higher number of variants, have been isolated from genital mucosas. The association of certain types primarily with normal tissues and benign lesions, as opposed to cancer-associated types, has led to the concept of low and high oncogenic risk HPVs, respectively. The latter express oncogenic proteins that interfere with cell growth control functions. As a consequence of the continuous expression of these viral genomes, chromosome instability may occur, leading to fully transformed cells. Studies indicate that persistence of high-risk HPVs may determine progression to more severe stages of cervical disease, while the majority of HPV infections are transient and do not seem to be important in cervical carcinogenesis. The risk for disease progression seems also to be associated with viral burden. Prospective epidemiological studies will contribute to the knowledge of the natural history of HPV infections and provide information on the determinants of viral persistence. Data derived from these studies may define the clinical utility of HPV testing and its use in cervical cancer prevention programs.
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              Anal human papillomavirus and anal cancer.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbc
                Revista Brasileira de Coloproctologia
                Rev bras. colo-proctol.
                Cidade Editora Científica Ltda (Rio de Janeiro )
                0101-9880
                March 2011
                : 31
                : 1
                : 8-16
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital Ophir Loyola Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade do Estado do Pará Brazil
                [3 ] Instituto Ludwig de Pesquisa sobre o Câncer Brazil
                [4 ] Instituto Ludwig de Pesquisa sobre o Câncer
                [5 ] Academia Brasileira de Ciências Brazil
                [6 ] Ordem Nacional do Mérito Científico Brasil
                [7 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
                [8 ] ST. Mark's Hospital
                Article
                S0101-98802011000100002
                10.1590/S0101-98802011000100002
                26320f2e-26b0-4e71-be0a-25731881b735

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0101-9880&lng=en
                Categories
                GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY
                SURGERY

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology,Surgery
                papillomavirus infections,carcinoma,squamous cells,anal canal,papilloma,infecções por papilomavírus,carcinoma de células escamosas,canal anal,papiloma

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