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      Clinical association between tacrolimus intra-patient variability and liver transplantation outcomes in patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Tacrolimus is the mainstay of immunosuppression in liver transplantation to prevent rejection. However, the clinical use of tacrolimus is complicated by its narrow therapeutic window and significant intra-patient variability (IPV). High tacrolimus IPV is associated with overexposure and adverse effects, including malignancy. The effects of tacrolimus IPV in liver transplant recipients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. We investigated the association between tacrolimus IPV and transplant outcomes in 636 liver transplant patients. Tacrolimus IPV was determined by calculating the coefficient of variance (CV) of outpatient tacrolimus trough levels from 3 to 12 months after transplantation. High tacrolimus IPV was defined as CV > 30%. Patients were grouped according to tacrolimus IPV and HCC status. Among 636 liver transplant patients, 349 had HCC and 287 had no HCC. Overall survival in HCC patients was significantly reduced with high tacrolimus IPV ( P < 0.001), whereas survival of non-HCC patients was not associated with tacrolimus IPV. Multivariable analysis confirmed the independent association between high tacrolimus IPV and overall mortality in HCC patients (HR, 3.010; 95% CI, 1.084–4.918). HCC recurred in 59 patients (16.9%) post-transplantation. After adjusting for donor/recipient factors, immunosuppression, and tumor characteristics, high tacrolimus IPV was independently associated with an increased risk of HCC recurrence (HR, 2.196; 95% CI, 1.272–3.791). High tacrolimus IPV was associated with significantly increased risks of overall mortality and HCC recurrence in liver transplant recipients with HCC.

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          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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              Management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                laplaine@yuhs.ac
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                28 September 2022
                28 September 2022
                2022
                : 12
                : 16169
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5454, Department of Surgery, , Yonsei University College of Medicine, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Article
                20636
                10.1038/s41598-022-20636-3
                9519914
                36171260
                263b745a-4ce7-4d32-9a9d-79656a69ebea
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 8 May 2022
                : 15 September 2022
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Uncategorized
                hepatocellular carcinoma,risk factors,immunosuppression,adverse effects
                Uncategorized
                hepatocellular carcinoma, risk factors, immunosuppression, adverse effects

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