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      A report of a new species and new record of Cadlina (Nudibranchia, Cadlinidae) from South Korea

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          Abstract

          Of the four species in the genus Cadlina present in the northwestern Pacific region, C. japonica has been the only species recorded from South Korea. For the purpose of investigating Cadlina in Korean waters, specimens were collected from the Korean East Sea (Sea of Japan) by scuba diving. The radula and morphology of these specimens were examined by stereoscopic and scanning electron microscopy. Based on morphology, three species were identified in Korean waters, including the new species, Cadlina koreana sp. nov., C. umiushi (first record in South Korea), and C. japonica . Cadlina koreana sp. nov. somewhat resembles C. umiushi but differs in both its morphology as well as the structure of its radula. The background color of Cadlina koreana sp. nov. is translucent white, tubercles on the dorsum are opaque white and the yellow marginal band is absent. The radular formula of Cadlina koreana sp. nov. is 57 × 23.1.23 with a rectangular rachidian tooth. In addition, mitochondrial cytochrome c subunit 1 (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) gene sequences were generated and used for analysis of Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and reconstruction of the phylogenetic tree. Morphological distinction and genetic analyses confirm that three Cadlina species are present in Korean waters of which Cadlina koreana is a new species.

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          Most cited references 22

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data

            Summary: The two main functions of bioinformatics are the organization and analysis of biological data using computational resources. Geneious Basic has been designed to be an easy-to-use and flexible desktop software application framework for the organization and analysis of biological data, with a focus on molecular sequences and related data types. It integrates numerous industry-standard discovery analysis tools, with interactive visualizations to generate publication-ready images. One key contribution to researchers in the life sciences is the Geneious public application programming interface (API) that affords the ability to leverage the existing framework of the Geneious Basic software platform for virtually unlimited extension and customization. The result is an increase in the speed and quality of development of computation tools for the life sciences, due to the functionality and graphical user interface available to the developer through the public API. Geneious Basic represents an ideal platform for the bioinformatics community to leverage existing components and to integrate their own specific requirements for the discovery, analysis and visualization of biological data. Availability and implementation: Binaries and public API freely available for download at http://www.geneious.com/basic, implemented in Java and supported on Linux, Apple OSX and MS Windows. The software is also available from the Bio-Linux package repository at http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/news/geneiousonbl. Contact: peter@biomatters.com
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              MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

              Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                24 November 2020
                : 996
                : 1-18
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Biotechnology, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, South Korea Sangmyung University Seoul South Korea
                [2 ] Korea Marine-Bio Lab, Daejeon 34130, South Korea Korea Marine-Bio Lab Daejeon South Korea
                [3 ] Genetic Resources Information Center, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon 22689, South Korea National Institute of Biological Resources Incheon South Korea
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Chang-Bae Kim ( evodevo@ 123456smu.ac.kr )

                Academic editor: N. Yonow

                Article
                54602
                10.3897/zookeys.996.54602
                7710686
                Thinh Dinh Do, Dae-Wui Jung, Hyun-Jong Kil, Chang-Bae Kim

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                National Research Foundation of Korea and the National Institute of Biological Resource (NIBR)
                Categories
                Research Article
                Cadlinidae
                Nudibranchia
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Cenozoic
                Asia

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