+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Case Report: Filling Defect in Posterior Semicircular Canal on MRI With Balanced Steady-State Gradient-Echo Sequences After Labyrinthine Ischemia in the Common Cochlear Artery Territory as an Early Sign of Fibrosis


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          We describe a rare case of posterior semicircular canal (PSC) fibrosis following acute labyrinthine ischemia in the territory supplied by the common cochlear artery (CCA) and review the relevant literature. A 71-year-old man with multiple vascular risk factors presented 12 days after the onset of acute vertigo and profound left-sided hearing loss. Right-beating spontaneous nystagmus with downbeat components elicited by mastoid vibrations and headshaking was detected. The video head impulse test (vHIT) revealed an isolated hypofunction of the left PSC, whereas vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) showed ipsilateral saccular loss. The clinical presentation and instrumental picture were consistent with acute ischemia in the territory supplied by left CCA. Compared to previous imaging, a new MRI of the brain with 3D-FIESTA sequences highlighted a filling defect in the left PSC, consistent with fibrosis. Hearing function exhibited mild improvement after steroid therapy and hyperbaric oxygen sessions, whereas vHIT abnormalities persisted over time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only case in the literature reporting a filling defect on MRI, consistent with semicircular canal fibrosis following acute labyrinthine ischemia. Moreover, PSC fibrosis was related with poor functional outcome. We therefore suggest using balanced steady-state gradient-echo sequences a few weeks following an acute lesion of inner ear sensors to detect signal loss within membranous labyrinth consistent with post-ischemic fibrosis. Besides addressing the underlying etiology, signal loss might also offer clues on the functional behavior of the involved sensor over time. In cases of acute loss of inner ear function, a careful bedside examination supplemented by instrumental assessments, including vHIT and VEMPs, of vestibular receptors and afferents may be completed by MRI with balanced steady-state gradient-echo sequences at a later time to confirm the diagnosis and address both etiology and functional outcome.

          Related collections

          Most cited references33

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          The Video Head Impulse Test

          In 1988, we introduced impulsive testing of semicircular canal (SCC) function measured with scleral search coils and showed that it could accurately and reliably detect impaired function even of a single lateral canal. Later we showed that it was also possible to test individual vertical canal function in peripheral and also in central vestibular disorders and proposed a physiological mechanism for why this might be so. For the next 20 years, between 1988 and 2008, impulsive testing of individual SCC function could only be accurately done by a few aficionados with the time and money to support scleral search-coil systems—an expensive, complicated and cumbersome, semi-invasive technique that never made the transition from the research lab to the dizzy clinic. Then, in 2009 and 2013, we introduced a video method of testing function of each of the six canals individually. Since 2009, the method has been taken up by most dizzy clinics around the world, with now close to 100 refereed articles in PubMed. In many dizzy clinics around the world, video Head Impulse Testing has supplanted caloric testing as the initial and in some cases the final test of choice in patients with suspected vestibular disorders. Here, we consider seven current, interesting, and controversial aspects of video Head Impulse Testing: (1) introduction to the test; (2) the progress from the head impulse protocol (HIMPs) to the new variant—suppression head impulse protocol (SHIMPs); (3) the physiological basis for head impulse testing; (4) practical aspects and potential pitfalls of video head impulse testing; (5) problems of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain calculations; (6) head impulse testing in central vestibular disorders; and (7) to stay right up-to-date—new clinical disease patterns emerging from video head impulse testing. With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who since his first article 55 years ago on compensatory eye movements induced by vertical SCC stimulation has become one of the giants of the vestibular world.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            HINTS to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome: three-step bedside oculomotor examination more sensitive than early MRI diffusion-weighted imaging.

            Acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) is often due to vestibular neuritis but can result from vertebrobasilar strokes. Misdiagnosis of posterior fossa infarcts in emergency care settings is frequent. Bedside oculomotor findings may reliably identify stroke in AVS, but prospective studies have been lacking. The authors conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study at an academic hospital. Consecutive patients with AVS (vertigo, nystagmus, nausea/vomiting, head-motion intolerance, unsteady gait) with >or=1 stroke risk factor underwent structured examination, including horizontal head impulse test of vestibulo-ocular reflex function, observation of nystagmus in different gaze positions, and prism cross-cover test of ocular alignment. All underwent neuroimaging and admission (generally <72 hours after symptom onset). Strokes were diagnosed by MRI or CT. Peripheral lesions were diagnosed by normal MRI and clinical follow-up. One hundred one high-risk patients with AVS included 25 peripheral and 76 central lesions (69 ischemic strokes, 4 hemorrhages, 3 other). The presence of normal horizontal head impulse test, direction-changing nystagmus in eccentric gaze, or skew deviation (vertical ocular misalignment) was 100% sensitive and 96% specific for stroke. Skew was present in 17% and associated with brainstem lesions (4% peripheral, 4% pure cerebellar, 30% brainstem involvement; chi(2), P=0.003). Skew correctly predicted lateral pontine stroke in 2 of 3 cases in which an abnormal horizontal head impulse test erroneously suggested peripheral localization. Initial MRI diffusion-weighted imaging was falsely negative in 12% (all <48 hours after symptom onset). Skew predicts brainstem involvement in AVS and can identify stroke when an abnormal horizontal head impulse test falsely suggests a peripheral lesion. A 3-step bedside oculomotor examination (HINTS: Head-Impulse-Nystagmus-Test-of-Skew) appears more sensitive for stroke than early MRI in AVS.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Clinical practice guideline: sudden hearing loss.

              Sudden hearing loss (SHL) is a frightening symptom that often prompts an urgent or emergent visit to a physician. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients who present with SHL. The guideline primarily focuses on sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in adult patients (aged 18 and older). Prompt recognition and management of SSNHL may improve hearing recovery and patient quality of life (QOL). Sudden sensorineural hearing loss affects 5 to 20 per 100,000 population, with about 4000 new cases per year in the United States. This guideline is intended for all clinicians who diagnose or manage adult patients who present with SHL. The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations in evaluating patients with SHL, with particular emphasis on managing SSNHL. The panel recognized that patients enter the health care system with SHL as a nonspecific, primary complaint. Therefore, the initial recommendations of the guideline deal with efficiently distinguishing SSNHL from other causes of SHL at the time of presentation. By focusing on opportunities for quality improvement, the guideline should improve diagnostic accuracy, facilitate prompt intervention, decrease variations in management, reduce unnecessary tests and imaging procedures, and improve hearing and rehabilitative outcomes for affected patients. The panel made strong recommendations that clinicians should (1) distinguish sensorineural hearing loss from conductive hearing loss in a patient presenting with SHL; (2) educate patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) about the natural history of the condition, the benefits and risks of medical interventions, and the limitations of existing evidence regarding efficacy; and (3) counsel patients with incomplete recovery of hearing about the possible benefits of amplification and hearing-assistive technology and other supportive measures. The panel made recommendations that clinicians should (1) assess patients with presumptive SSNHL for bilateral SHL, recurrent episodes of SHL, or focal neurologic findings; (2) diagnose presumptive ISSNHL if audiometry confirms a 30-dB hearing loss at 3 consecutive frequencies and an underlying condition cannot be identified by history and physical examination; (3) evaluate patients with ISSNHL for retrocochlear pathology by obtaining magnetic resonance imaging, auditory brainstem response, or audiometric follow-up; (4) offer intratympanic steroid perfusion when patients have incomplete recovery from ISSNHL after failure of initial management; and (5) obtain follow-up audiometric evaluation within 6 months of diagnosis for patients with ISSNHL. The panel offered as options that clinicians may offer (1) corticosteroids as initial therapy to patients with ISSNHL and (2) hyperbaric oxygen therapy within 3 months of diagnosis of ISSNHL. The panel made a recommendation against clinicians routinely prescribing antivirals, thrombolytics, vasodilators, vasoactive substances, or antioxidants to patients with ISSNHL. The panel made strong recommendations against clinicians (1) ordering computerized tomography of the head/brain in the initial evaluation of a patient with presumptive SSNHL and (2) obtaining routine laboratory tests in patients with ISSNHL.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                13 January 2021
                : 11
                : 608838
                [1] 1ENT Unit, Department of Surgery, Azienda USL – IRCCS di Reggio Emilia , Reggio Emilia, Italy
                [2] 2Department of Radiology, Azienda USL – IRCCS di Reggio Emilia , Reggio Emilia, Italy
                [3] 3Department of Neurology, Azienda USL – IRCCS di Reggio Emilia , Reggio Emilia, Italy
                [4] 4Audiology and Ear Surgery Unit, Azienda USL – IRCCS di Reggio Emilia , Reggio Emilia, Italy
                [5] 5Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia , Modena, Italy
                [6] 6ENT Unit, Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Azienda USL Latina , Latina, Italy
                [7] 7Audiology and Vestibology Service, Centromedico Bellinzona , Bellinzona, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Raymond Van De Berg, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Netherlands

                Reviewed by: Michael C. Schubert, Johns Hopkins University, United States; Nese Celebisoy, Ege University, Turkey; Luke Chen, Monash University, Australia

                *Correspondence: Andrea Castellucci andrea.castellucci@ 123456ausl.re.it

                This article was submitted to Neuro-Otology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

                Copyright © 2021 Castellucci, Pepponi, Bertellini, Senesi, Bettini, Botti, Martellucci, Malara, Delmonte, Crocetta, Fornaciari, Lusetti, Bianchin and Ghidini.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 21 September 2020
                : 02 December 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 8, Words: 4560
                Case Report

                common cochlear artery,labyrinthine ischemia,posterior semicircular canal,labyrinthine fibrosis,video-head impulse test,vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials,inner ear mri


                Comment on this article