A new strategy to render intrinsically hydrophobic microrough titanium implant surfaces superhydrophilic is reported, which is based on a rapid treatment with diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. The physicochemical characterization and protein interaction of the resulting superhydrophilic implant surfaces are presented. The superhydrophilicity of alkali treated microrough titanium substrates was mainly attributed to deprotonation and ion exchange processes in combination with a strong enhancement of wettability due to the roughness of the used substrates. Albeit these minor and mostly reversible chemical changes qualitative and quantitative differences between the protein adsorption on untreated and alkali treated microrough titanium substrates were detected. These differences in protein adsorption might account for the enhanced osseointegrative potential of superhydrophilic alkali treated microrough implant surfaces. The presented alkali treatment protocol represents a new clinically applicable route to superhydrophilic microrough titanium substrates by rendering the implant surface superhydrophilic "in situ of implantation".