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      The Effect of Co-administration of 4-Methylcatechol and Progesterone on Sciatic Nerve Function and Neurohistological Alterations in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Rats

      , Ph.D. 1 , * , , Ph.D. 2

      Cell Journal (Yakhteh)

      Royan Institute

      Diabetic Neuropathy, Sciatic Nerve, Progesterone, 4-Methylcatechol, Rat

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          Abstract

          Objective:

          Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus affecting the nervous system. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of combined administration of 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) and progesterone (P) as a potential therapeutic tool for sciatic nerve function improvement and its role in histomorphological alterations in diabetic neuropathy in rats.

          Materials and Methods:

          Male adult rats were divided into 3 groups: sham operated control (CO), untreated diabetic (DM) and diabetic treated with progesterone and 4-methylcatechol (DMP4MC) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of 55 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Four weeks after the STZ administration, the DMP4MC group was treated with P and 4-MC for 6 weeks. Then, following anesthesia, the animals' sciatic nerves were removed and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as histological evaluation.

          Results:

          Diabetic rats showed a statistically significant reduction in motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), nerve blood flow (NBF), mean myelinated fiber (MF) diameters and myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve after 10 weeks. In the sciatic nerve of the untreated diabetic group, endoneurial edema and increased number of myelinated fibers with myelin abnormalities such as infolding into the axoplasm, irregularity of fibers and alteration in myelin compaction were also observed. Treatment of diabetic rats with a combination of P and 4-MC significantly increased MNCV and NBF and prevented endoneurial edema and all myelin abnormalities.

          Conclusion:

          Our findings indicated that co-administration of P and 4-MC may prevent sciatic nerve dysfunction and histomorphological alterations in experimental diabetic neuropathy.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Vascular risk factors and diabetic neuropathy.

          Other than glycemic control, there are no treatments for diabetic neuropathy. Thus, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for neuropathy is crucial. We studied risk factors for the development of distal symmetric neuropathy in 1172 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 31 centers participating in the European Diabetes (EURODIAB) Prospective Complications Study. Neuropathy was assessed at baseline (1989 to 1991) and at follow-up (1997 to 1999), with a mean (+/-SD) follow-up of 7.3+/-0.6 years. A standardized protocol included clinical evaluation, quantitative sensory testing, and autonomic-function tests. Serum lipids and lipoproteins, glycosylated hemoglobin, and the urinary albumin excretion rate were measured in a central laboratory. At follow-up, neuropathy had developed in 276 of 1172 patients without neuropathy at baseline (23.5 percent). The cumulative incidence of neuropathy was related to the glycosylated hemoglobin value and the duration of diabetes. After adjustment for these factors, we found that higher levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, a higher body-mass index, higher von Willebrand factor levels and urinary albumin excretion rate, hypertension, and smoking were all significantly associated with the cumulative incidence of neuropathy. After adjustment for other risk factors and diabetic complications, we found that duration of diabetes, current glycosylated hemoglobin value, change in glycosylated hemoglobin value during the follow-up period, body-mass index, and smoking remained independently associated with the incidence of neuropathy. Cardiovascular disease at baseline was associated with double the risk of neuropathy, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. This prospective study indicates that, apart from glycemic control, the incidence of neuropathy is associated with potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, including a raised triglyceride level, body-mass index, smoking, and hypertension. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.

            Oxidative stress results from a cell or tissue failing to detoxify the free radicals that are produced during metabolic activity. Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that produces dysregulation of cellular metabolism. This review explores the concept that diabetes overloads glucose metabolic pathways, resulting in excess free radical production and oxidative stress. Evidence is presented to support the idea that both chronic and acute hyperglycemia cause oxidative stress in the peripheral nervous system that can promote the development of diabetic neuropathy. Proteins that are damaged by oxidative stress have decreased biological activity leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and, ultimately, to cell death. Examination of the data from animal and cell culture models of diabetes, as well as clinical trials of antioxidants, strongly implicates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. We conclude that striving for superior antioxidative therapies remains essential for the prevention of neuropathy in diabetic patients.
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              Diabetic neuropathy and oxidative stress.

              This review will focus on the impact of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in the development of diabetes-related neural dysfunction. Oxidative stress occurs when the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability of cells or tissues to detoxify the free radicals produced during metabolic activity is tilted in the favor of the former. Although hyperglycemia plays a key role in inducing oxidative stress in the diabetic nerve, the contribution of other factors, such as endoneurial hypoxia, transition metal imbalances, and hyperlipidemia have been also suggested. The possible sources for the overproduction of ROS in diabetes are widespread and include enzymatic pathways, auto-oxidation of glucose, and mitochondrial superoxide production. Increase in oxidative stress has clearly been shown to contribute to the pathology of neural and vascular dysfunction in diabetes. Potential therapies for preventing increased oxidative stress in diabetic nerve dysfunction will be discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1. Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
                2. Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Ahwaz Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran
                Author notes
                * Corresponding Address: P.O.Box: 35145-331Department of Anatomical SciencesFaculty of MedicineSemnan University of Medical Sciences SemnanIran Email: hrsameni@ 123456gmail.com
                Journal
                Cell J
                Cell J
                Royan Institute
                Cell Journal (Yakhteh)
                Royan Institute
                2228-5806
                2228-5814
                Spring 2011
                21 April 2011
                : 13
                : 1
                : 31-38
                Cell-J-13-31
                3652538
                23671825
                Any use, distribution, reproduction or abstract of this publication in any medium, with the exception of commercial purposes, is permitted provided the original work is properly cited

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Neurology
                Biology

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