+1 Recommend
1 collections

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on reporting of clinical studies, outcomes and safety in all therapeutic areas and surgical intervention areas. Sign up for email alerts here.

      34,006 Monthly downloads/views I 2.755 Impact Factor I 4.5 CiteScore I 1.0 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.598 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Technique of Intradiscal Injection: A Narrative Review


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common spine diseases and represents the most frequent cause of absence from work in developed countries. Approximately 40% of chronic LBP is related to discogenic origin. The goal of the study is producing a review of literature to describe analytically the techniques of intradiscal injections.


          PubMed database was searched for clinical studies with the different key terms: “intradiscal”, “injection”, “steroid” “procedures”, “techniques”, “CT”, “MRI”, “fluoroscopy”, “fluoroscopic”, “guidance”, “ozone”, “ultrasound”, “images”. Only studies written in English, French, or Italian in which the intradiscal injection represents the main procedure for the low back discopathy treatment on humans were considered. We excluded the articles that do not mention this procedure; those which indicated that the intradiscal injection had happened accidentally during other treatments; those reporting the patient’s pain was determined by other causes than the discopathy (facet joint syndrome, tumor, spondylodiscitis).


          Thirty-one articles dated from 1969 to 2018 met the criteria. The examined population was 6843 subjects, 52.3% male and 47.7% female, with a mean age of 45.9±10.1 years. The techniques are highly variable in terms of procedure: different operators, needle guidance, injection sites, drugs, tilt angle of the needle).


          The efficacy and the safety of the intradiscal procedures are not easily comparable due to different types of studies and their limited number. Further studies are needed to standardize the intradiscal injection technique/procedure to improve safety, repeatability and effectiveness, and last but not least to reduce peri- and postoperative care and health-care costs.

          Most cited references45

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Intervertebral disc repair by allogeneic mesenchymal bone marrow cells: a randomized controlled trial.

          Degenerative disc disease often causes severe low-back pain, a public health problem with huge economic and life quality impact. Chronic cases often require surgery, which may lead to biomechanical problems and accelerated degeneration of the adjacent segments. Autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) treatments have shown feasibility, safety and strong indications of clinical efficacy. We present here a randomized, controlled trial using allogeneic MSC, which are logistically more convenient than autologous cells.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Chronic diseases in the European Union: the prevalence and health cost implications of chronic pain.

            The objective of this study was to assess recent data on the prevalence of chronic pain as part of chronic diseases; the prevalence of chronic pain as a chronic condition in its own right; the costs attributed to chronic pain; and the European Union (EU) policies to addressing chronic pain. Recent literature was reviewed for data on the prevalence and cost implications of chronic pain in the EU. Following on from an earlier systematic review, 8 databases were searched for prevalence and 10 for cost information from 2009 to 2011 and relevant EU organizations were contacted. Ten cost and 29 prevalence studies were included from the 142 full papers screened. The general adult population reported an average chronic pain prevalence of 27%, which was similar to those for common chronic conditions. Fibromyalgia had the highest unemployment rate (6%; Rivera et al., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27[Suppl 56]:S39-S45) claims for incapacity benefit (up to 29.9%; Sicras-Mainar et al., Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R54), and greatest number of days of absence from work (Rivera et al., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27[Suppl 56]:S39-S45). Chronic pain is common and the total population cost is high. Despite its high impact, chronic pain as a condition seems to have had little specific policy response. However, there does appear to be sufficient evidence to at least make addressing chronic pain a high priority alongside other chronic diseases as well as to conduct more research, particularly regarding cost.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Safety and tolerability of intradiscal implantation of combined autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain: 1-year follow-up of a phase I study

              Background Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) offer potential as a therapeutic option for chronic discogenic low back pain (LBP) because of their immunomodulatory functions and capacity for cartilage differentiation. The goal of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability of a single intradiscal implantation of combined AT-MSCs and hyaluronic acid (HA) derivative in patients with chronic discogenic LBP. Methods We performed a single-arm phase I clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up and enrolled 10 eligible chronic LBP patients. Chronic LBP had lasted for more than 3 months with a minimum intensity of 4/10 on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and disability level ≥ 30% on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The 10 patients underwent a single intradiscal injection of combined HA derivative and AT-MSCs at a dose of 2 × 107 cells/disc (n = 5) or 4 × 107 cells/disc (n = 5). Safety and treatment outcomes were evaluated by assessing VAS, ODI, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and imaging (lumbar spine X-ray imaging and MRI) at regular intervals over 1 year. Results No patients were lost at any point during the 1-year clinical study. We observed no procedure or stem cell-related adverse events or serious adverse events during the 1-year follow-up period. VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores significantly improved in both groups receiving both low (cases 2, 4, and 5) and high (cases 7, 8, and 9) cell doses, and did not differ significantly between the two groups. Among six patients who achieved significant improvement in VAS, ODI, and SF-36, three patients (cases 4, 8, and 9) were determined to have increased water content based on an increased apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion MRI. Conclusions Combined implantation of AT-MSCs and HA derivative in chronic discogenic LBP is safe and tolerable. However, the efficacy of combined AT-MSCs and HA should be investigated in a randomized controlled trial in a larger population. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02338271. Registered 7 January 2015.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                09 October 2020
                : 16
                : 953-968
                [1 ]Rheumatology, S. Pietro Fatebenefratelli Hospital , Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata” , Rome, Italy
                [3 ]Radiology, Fatebenefratelli S. Pietro Hospital , Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Research Centre of Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases Behcet Disease Clinic and Rheumatology-Ophthalmology Collaborative Uveitis Centre Department of Medical Sciences Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena , Siena, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Andrea Sorbino Email a.sorbino@quaderni.biz
                Author information
                © 2020 Migliore et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 26 February 2020
                : 03 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 46, Pages: 16
                Funded by: not supported;
                This work is not supported by funds.

                discopathy,guidance,injection,intradiscal injections,low back pain,safety
                discopathy, guidance, injection, intradiscal injections, low back pain, safety


                Comment on this article